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Teacher aides

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Template:Teacher A teaching assistant (TA) (or paraprofessional educator, para-pros, instructional assistants or classroom assistants, is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities. The role in higher education is somewhat different see: Teaching assistant in higher education





Use with different categories of children

Use in teaching in mental retardation

Use in the teaching of pupils with learning difficulties

See also



Further reading


  • Brookson, M. (2006). Working as a teaching assistant. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Mendenhall, M. E. (1996). The foreign teaching assistant as expatriate manager. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Nyquist, J. D., & Wulff, D. H. (1996). Working effectively with graduate assistants. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Scharff, L. F. V. (2006). Using Teaching Assistants Effectively. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Scott, J. (1996). Recruiting, selecting, and training teaching assistants. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
  • Wortman, C. B., & Smyth, J. M. (1997). Using one's own passion and undergraduate TAs to transform the large-lecture introductory psychology course. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


  • Aanes, D., & Haagenson, L. (1978). Normalization: Attention to a conceptual disaster: Mental Retardation Vol 16(1) Feb 1978, 55-56.
  • Aird, R. (2000). The case for specialist training for learning support assistants employed in schools for children with severe, profound and multiple learning difficulties: Support for Learning Vol 15(3) Aug 2000, 106-110.
  • Allen, W. H. (1975). Intellectual abilities and instructional media design: AV Communication Review Vol 23(2) Sum 1975, 139-170.
  • Baker, L. M. (2008). Finding the balance: Review of Teachers and assistants working together: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol 55(1) Mar 2008, 83-87.
  • Batarseh, G., & Cicenia, E. (1972). Teacher education at a residential facility for the retarded: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 7(2) Apr 1972, 104-106.
  • Bernal, C. h., & Aragon, L. (2004). Critical Factors Affecting the Success of Paraprofessionals in the First Two Years of Career Ladder Projects in Colorado: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 205-213.
  • Berrian, D. A. (1987). Special educator absenteeism as a function of selected characteristics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Black, D. B., Bunyan, L. W., & Black, E. K. (1976). The effects of senior students as teacher aides with special reference to teaching behaviour: Alberta Journal of Educational Research Vol 22(2) Jun 1976, 140-148.
  • Boeding, C. H., & Kitchener, K. S. (1976). Training students to lead discussion groups: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 17(5) Sep 1976, 391-395.
  • Bowers, T. (1997). Supporting special needs in the mainstream classroom: Children's perceptions of the adult role: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 23(3) May 1997, 217-232.
  • Branstetter, S. A., & Handelsman, M. M. (2000). Graduate teaching assistants: Ethical training, beliefs, and practices: Ethics & Behavior Vol 10(1) 2000, 27-50.
  • Breyer, N. L., & Pollack, B. (1971). Behavioral consultation within the existing public school system: SALT: School Applications of Learning Theory Vol 4(1) Oct 1971, 2-13.
  • Buskist, W. (2000). Common mistakes made by graduate teaching assistants and suggestions for correcting them: Teaching of Psychology Vol 27(4) Fal 2000, 280-282.
  • Chavez, R., & Chesterfield, R. A. (1985). Teacher language use in a bilingual preschool setting: International Journal of the Sociology of Language No 53 1985, 83-97.
  • Chopra, R. V., & French, N. K. (2004). Paraeducator Relationships with Parents of Students with Significant Disabilities: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 240-251.
  • Chopra, R. V., Sandoval-Lucero, E., Aragon, L., Bernal, C., De Balderas, H. B., & Carroll, D. (2004). The Paraprofessional Role of Connector: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 219-231.
  • Clayton, T. (1993). Welfare assistants in the classroom: Problems and solutions: AEP (Association of Educational Psychologists) Journal Vol 8(4) Jan 1993, 191-197.
  • Cohen, P. A., Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C.-l. C. (1982). Education outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings: American Educational Research Journal Vol 19(2) Sum 1982, 237-248.
  • Cowen, E. L., Dorr, D. A., & Pokracki, F. (1972). Selection of nonprofessional child aides for a school mental health project: Community Mental Health Journal Vol 8(3) Aug 1972, 220-226.
  • Cremin, H., Thomas, G., & Vincett, K. (2003). Learning zones: An evaluation of three models for improving learning through teacher/teaching assistant teamwork: Support for Learning Vol 18(4) Nov 2003, 154-161.
  • Daly, B. (2006). Review of Teachers and assistants: Working together: Educational Psychology in Practice Vol 22(2) Jun 2006, 175-176.
  • Darr, R. F., & Arms, W. E. (1972). The California Test of Personality as a measure of change in the personality structure of teacher-aides in a 2-week workshop: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 41(1) Fal 1972, 9-11.
  • Dew-Hughes, D., Brayton, H., & Blandford, S. (1998). A survey of training and professional development for learning support assistants: Support for Learning Vol 13(4) Nov 1998, 179-183.
  • Durlak, J. A. (1973). Ninth graders as student aides: Making use of the helper therapy principle: Psychology in the Schools Vol 10(3) 1973, 334-339.
  • Ediger, M. (2003). Paraprofessionals in reading: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 30(1) Mar 2003, 93-96.
  • Escudero, G. R., & Sears, J. (1982). Teachers' and aides' perceptions of their responsibilities when teaching severely and profoundly handicapped students: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 17(3) Oct 1982, 190-195.
  • Evans, J. (1975). A Comparative Study of Four Aids to Instruction in Teaching Music with Children of 8-9 Years of Age: Psychology of Music Vol 3(1) Apr 1975, 36-39.
  • Eyres, I., Cable, C., Hancock, R., & Turner, J. (2004). 'Whoops, I forgot David': Children's perceptions of the adults who work in their classrooms: Early Years An International Journal of Research and Development Vol 24(2) Sep 2004, 149-162.
  • Fabrega, C. C. (1978). Procedure in establishing a learning center for the severely handicapped: Education Vol 99(1) Fal 1978, 31-35.
  • Farrell, P., Balshaw, M., & Polat, F. (2000). The work of learning support assistants in mainstream schools: Implications for educational psychologists: Educational and Child Psychology Vol 17(2) 2000, 66-76.
  • Farrell, P., & Sugden, M. (1984). An evaluation of an EDY course in behavioural techniques for classroom assistants in a school for children with severe learning difficulties: Educational Psychology Vol 4(3) 1984, 185-198.
  • Fox, G. (2003). Review of Supporting children with behaviour difficulties--A guide for assistants in schools: British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 73(1) Mar 2003, 138-139.
  • Frelow, R. D., Charry, J., & Freilich, B. (1974). Academic progress and behavioral changes in low achieving pupils: Journal of Educational Research Vol 67(6) Feb 1974, 263-266.
  • French, N. K. (2004). Introduction to the Special Series: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 203-204.
  • Frith, G. H. (1981). Paraprofessionals: A focus on interpersonal skills: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 16(4) Dec 1981, 306-309.
  • Frith, G. H., & Kelly, P. (1981). The parent/paraprofessional relationship in programs for severely and profoundly retarded children: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 16(3) Oct 1981, 231-234.
  • Fullerton, S. (1973). Self-concept changes of junior high students: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 20(5) Sep 1973, 493-494.
  • Gerber, S. B., Finn, J. D., Achilles, C. M., & Boyd-Zaharias, J. (2001). Teacher aides and students' academic achievement: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Vol 23(2) Sum 2001, 123-143.
  • Gipps, C. (1982). Nursery nurses and nursery teachers: I. Their assessment of children's verbal-social behaviour: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Jul 1982, 237-254.
  • Gipps, C. (1982). Nursery nurses and nursery teachers: II. Their attitudes towards pre-school children and their parents: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Jul 1982, 255-265.
  • Godwin, D. C. (1977). The bilingual teacher aide: Classroom asset: The Elementary School Journal Vol 77(4) Mar 1977, 265-267.
  • Goodman, G. (1990). Utilising the paraprofessional in the mainstream: Support for Learning Vol 5(4) Nov 1990, 199-204.
  • Granum, R. A. (1975). Teacher study groups: Do they make a difference? : Elementary School Guidance & Counseling Vol 9(3) Mar 1975, 210-217.
  • Groom, B. (2006). Building relationships for learning: The developing role of the teaching assistant: Support for Learning Vol 21(4) Nov 2006, 199-203.
  • Groom, B., & Rose, R. (2005). Supporting the inclusion of pupils with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties in the primary school: The role of teaching assistants: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs Vol 5(1) Mar 2005, 20-30.
  • Hansen, L. S. (1993). The Teachers' Aid Shop: Psykologisk Paedagogisk Radgivning Vol 30(3) Jun 1993, 223-231.
  • Haring, K. A., Saren, D., Lovett, D. L., & Shelton, M. N. (1992). A study of the demographic and attitudinal differences between paraprofessionals and teachers in self-contained special education classrooms: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Vol 4(1) Mar 1992, 51-73.
  • Hughes, M., & Westgate, D. (1997). Assistants as talk-partners in early-years classrooms: Some issues of support and development: Educational Review Vol 49(1) Feb 1997, 5-12.
  • Inglis, M. (1993). The communicator style measure applied to nonnative speaking teaching assistants: International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol 17(1) Win 1993, 89-105.
  • Jackson, W. K., & Simpson, R. D. (1983). A survey of graduate teaching assistant instructional improvement programs: College Student Journal Vol 17(3) Fal 1983, 220-224.
  • Jenkins, S. (2000). Cultural and linguistic miscues: A case study of international teaching assistant and academic faculty miscommunication: International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol 24(4) Jul 2000, 477-501.
  • Jensen, J. M., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (1998). Supervisory training for teachers: Multiple, long-term effects in an education program for adults with severe disabilities: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 19(6) Nov-Dec 1998, 449-463.
  • Johnson, J. L., & Fleisher, K. (1980). Reactions of teachers of emotionally disturbed children to group relations conferences: A new application of Tavistock training: Journal of Personality & Social Systems Vol 2(2-3) Sep 1980, 11-25.
  • Jones, L. W. (1972). Determining the role of teacher aides through identification of tasks within the psycho-motor, affective, and cognitive skills domains: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Kerry, T. (2005). Towards a typology for conceptualizing the roles of teaching assistants: Educational Review Vol 57(3) Aug 2005, 373-384.
  • Knoff, H. M. (1984). Stimulus control, paraprofessionals, and appropriate playground behavior: School Psychology Review Vol 13(2) Win 1984, 249-253.
  • Lewis, K. C. (2004). Instructional aides: Colleagues or cultural brokers? : The School Community Journal Vol 14(1) Spr-Sum 2004, 91-111.
  • Logan, A. (2006). The role of the special needs assistant supporting pupils with special educational needs in Irish mainstream primary schools: Support for Learning Vol 21(2) May 2006, 92-99.
  • Loos, F. M., Williams, K. P., & Bailey, J. S. (1977). A multi-element analysis of the effect of teacher aides in an "open style" classroom: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 10(3) Fal 1977, 437-448.
  • Martin, L., Wright, J., & Maertens, N. (1996). Introduction of a non-traditional group of students into teacher education: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 23(1) Mar 1996, 38-44.
  • Martin-Jones, M., & Saxena, M. (2003). Bilingual Resources and 'Funds of Knowledge' for Teaching and Learning in Multi-ethnic Classrooms in Britain: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Vol 6(3-4) 2003, 267-282.
  • May, D. C., & Marozas, D. S. (1981). The role of the paraprofessional in educational programs for the severely handicapped: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 16(3) Oct 1981, 228-231.
  • McKenzie, R. G., & Houk, C. S. (1986). Use of paraprofessionals in the resource room: Exceptional Children Vol 53(1) Sep 1986, 41-45.
  • McNally, R. D., Cole, P. G., & Waugh, R. F. (2001). Regular teachers' attitudes to the need for additional classroom support for the inclusion of students with intellectual disability: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability Vol 26(3) Sep 2001, 257-273.
  • Meyers, S. A., & Prieto, L. R. (2000). Training in the teaching of psychology: What is done and examining the differences: Teaching of Psychology Vol 27(4) Fal 2000, 258-261.
  • Meyers, S. A., & Prieto, L. R. (2000). Using active learning to improve the training of psychology teaching assistants: Teaching of Psychology Vol 27(4) Fal 2000, 283-284.
  • Minondo, S., Meyer, L. H., & Xin, J. F. (2001). The role and responsibilities of teaching assistants in inclusive education: What's appropriate? : Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps Vol 26(2) Sum 2001, 114-119.
  • Moran, A., & Abbott, L. (2002). Developing inclusive schools: The pivotal role of teaching assistants in promoting inclusion in special and mainstream schools in Northern Ireland: European Journal of Special Needs Education Vol 17(2) Jun 2002, 161-173.
  • Parsonson, B. S., Baer, A. M., & Baer, D. M. (1974). The application of generalized correct social contingencies: An evaluation of a training program: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 7(3) Fal 1974, 427-437.
  • Pearson, S. (2005). Review of A team approach to behaviour management: A training guide for SENCOs working with Teaching Assistants: European Journal of Special Needs Education Vol 20(1) Feb 2005, 121-122.
  • Persons, W. S., Brassell, W. R., & Rollins, H. A. (1976). A practical observation procedure for monitering four behaviors relevant to classroom management: Psychology in the Schools Vol 13(1) Jan 1976, 64-71.
  • Powell, A., & Vega, M. (1972). Correlates of adult locus of control: Psychological Reports Vol 30(2) Apr 1972, 455-460.
  • Prieto, L. R., & Meyers, S. A. (1999). Effects of training and supervision on the self-efficacy of psychology graduate teaching assistants: Teaching of Psychology Vol 26(4) Fal 1999, 264-266.
  • Rayder, N. F., & Body, B. (1975). The educational forces inventory: Psychometric properties: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 44(2) Win 1975, 35-44.
  • Reinoehl, R. B., & Halle, J. W. (1994). Increasing the assessment probe performance of teacher aides through written prompts: Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps Vol 19(1) Spr 1994, 32-42.
  • Richardson, D. C., & Havlicek, L. L. (1975). High school students as reading instructors: The Elementary School Journal Vol 75(6) Mar 1975, 389-393.
  • Rickel, A. U. (1982). Perceptions of adjustment problems in preschool children by teachers and paraprofessional aides: Journal of Community Psychology Vol 10(1) Jan 1982, 29-35.
  • Russell, A., Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., Brown, P., & Martin, C. (2005). The views of teaching assistants in English key stage 2 classes on their role, training and job satisfaction: Educational Research Vol 47(2) Jun 2005, 175-189.
  • Schepis, M. M., Ownbey, J. B., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (2000). Training support staff for teaching young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool setting: Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions Vol 2(3) Sum 2000, 170-178.
  • Schloss, P. J., Sedlak, R. A., Wiggins, E. D., & Ramsey, D. (1983). Stress reduction for professionals working with aggressive adolescents: Exceptional Children Vol 49(4) Jan 1983, 349-354.
  • Schortinghuis, N. E., & Frohman, A. (1974). A comparison of paraprofessional and professional success with preschool children: Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol 7(4) Apr 1974, 245-247.
  • Sciarra, D. J. (1971). Men in young children's lives make a difference: Child Care Quarterly Vol 1(2) Win 1971-1972, 111-118.
  • Sheldon, M. S., Nimnicht, G., & Rayder, N. F. (1973). The educational forces inventory: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 1973, 657-658.
  • Storey, K., Smith, D. J., & Strain, P. S. (1993). Use of classroom assistants and peer-mediated intervention to increase integration in preschool settings: Exceptionality Vol 4(1) 1993, 1-16.
  • Sulzer-Azaroff, B., Johnson, K. R., Dean, M. R., & Freyman, D. R. (1978). An experimental analysis of proctor quiz-scoring accuracy in personalized instruction courses: Journal of Personalized Instruction Vol 2(3) Sep 1978, 143-149.
  • Vadasy, P. F., Sanders, E. A., & Peyton, J. A. (2006). Code-oriented instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties: A randomized field trial with paraeducator implementers: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 98(3) Aug 2006, 508-528.
  • Vasquez, C. (2004). "Very carefully managed": Advice and suggestions in post-observation meetings: Linguistics and Education Vol 15(1-2) Spr 2004, 33-58.
  • Weis, L., Bushell, D., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1975). The effects of various teacher contact ratios in programmed reading: Improving Human Performance Quarterly Vol 4(1) Spr 1975, 23-36.
  • Werts, M. G., Harris, S., Tillery, C. Y., & Roark, R. (2004). What Parents Tell Us About Paraeducators: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 232-239.
  • White, G. W., Nielsen, L., & Prus, J. S. (1984). Head Start teacher and aide preferences for degree of specificity in written psychological recommendations: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Vol 15(6) Dec 1984, 785-790.
  • White, R. (2004). The Recruitment of Paraeducators Into the Special Education Profession: A Review of Progress, Select Evaluation Outcomes, and New Initiatives: Remedial and Special Education Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 214-218.
  • Williams, P. (2006). Review of Psychology for teaching assistants: Educational Psychology in Practice Vol 22(1) Mar 2006, 93-94.


  • Barrett, S. C. (1981). An analysis of role conflict in teaching assistants: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barron, J. (1980). Issues in bilingual education affecting performance needs of teacher aides with implications for teacher training programs: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bartoli, P. V. (2002). Burnout and job performance among education professionals and paraprofessionals. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bower, N. J. (1978). A comparison of two models for training personnel for teaching the moderately and severely retarded: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bullerman, M. F. (1974). Parental perception of the educational program in certain selected schools: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Christenberry, M. A. (1975). An exploratory study to investigate the relationship between teaching effectiveness and level of empathic understanding of paraprofessional teachers of young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Clemons, W. H. (1973). Variations in role expectations and role realization as perceived by teacher aide trainees, teachers of teacher aide trainees, teacher aides and teachers utilizing teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dalea, I. L. (1973). Change in self-perception in student teacher-aides following a work program: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • DiBartolomeo, T. R. (1980). The effects of modeling and discrimination training with expert generated feedback or self-generated feedback on teacher performance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dill, A. V. (1994). Instructional assistants in special education: An experiential study of stress arising from a gap between "what is" and "what ought to be". Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Doidge, D. A. (1975). Teacher perceptions of teacher behavior as related to paraprofessional teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ferguson, R. C. (1977). Teachers and teacher aides: A case study of innovation in an elementary school: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Feuchtbaum, G. (1976). Relationships of self concept, interpersonal values, and role expectations of indigenous classroom paraprofessionals in selected elementary schools in New York City and Philadelphia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goodwin, S. S. (1983). The use of global and specific items in evaluating teaching in a teaching assistant training program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Grangaard, D. R. (1977). Perceptions of the functions of paraprofessionals in the kindergarten: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harris, S. L. (1979). Health misconceptions of elementary school teachers and teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hockett, J. C. (1973). An examination of changes in teacher behaviors and learner perceptions associated with a program for teaching assistants at the Florida State University: A pilot study: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Hudson, W. L. (1975). An investigation of students' attitudes in teacher preparation: With and without the teacher aid program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Huggins, J. W. (1985). A study to determine the teaching competencies needed by instructional assistants working with special needs students in area vocational centers in Michigan: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kelly, D. (1975). A study of the effects of high school students acting as instructional aides in elementary classrooms on the development of positive self-concepts in children with whom they work: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kuhirun, K. (1986). Job satisfaction of teaching assistants in the departments of mathematics in selected universities as related to their students' achievement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lawrence, C. A. (1974). An analysis of selected presage characteristics of teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Miller, N. I. (1984). Paraprofessionals' job satisfaction and their teachers' leadership style: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • O'Connell, C. P. (1977). Leader behaviors, leader styles, and management effectiveness of elementary teachers as related to paid teacher aides and volunteer teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ortiz, M. N. (1978). Bilingual-bicultural instructional aide roles as perceived by teachers, administrators, and instructional aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Palmer, M. F. (1987). Student teachers as aides for middle school mathematics classes: An exploration: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pekofsky, M. (1989). A comparison of perceived teaching styles in international teaching assistants receiving cross-cultural perceptiveness training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Peters, R. M. (1973). A study of teacher aide impact and the economics of aide usage: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Prest, G. S. (1993). A study of instructional assistants' job satisfaction and supervising teachers' leadership behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ritzman, E. R. (1973). Identity formation and effects of volunteer work experiences in community college students: An exploratory study with implications for counseling and education: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Roberts, C. A. (1974). An analysis of role definition consensus between teacher-coordinators and teacher aides in a career opportunities program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Robertson, M. K. (1980). An assessment of the effects of a college aide program on selected motor skills of second and fifth graders: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ryan, E. F. (1976). A comparison of the perceptions of the role of teacher aides in special education classes for trainable and severely/profoundly mentally retarded children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sears, M. H. (1982). Intellectual and creative talents in young children as perceived by teachers, teacher aides and parents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Shannon, G. C. (1978). An analysis of the administration of the Education Aide Program in the Los Angeles Unified School District: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schneiman, R. S. (1973). An evaluation of structured learning and didactic learning as methods of training behavior modification skills to low and middle socioeconomic level teacher-aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sutton, G. W. (1982). The effects of behavioral and process models of consultation on the performance of professional and paraprofessional consultees: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Swartzendruber, L. (1979). Gains in moral reasoning through two discussion methods under teaching assistants varying in Socratic skill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Taylor-Way, D. G. (1981). Adaptation of interpersonal process recall and a theory of educating for the conceptualization of college instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Thomas, F. M. (2005). In-service for teachers and teacher aides working with children on the autistic spectrum. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Truxaw, K. O. (1974). Recidivism differences among delinquent teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wheeler, V. R. (1976). Measuring human development activities in an individually guided education workshop: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wilson, B. J. (1972). A proposed training program for special education teacher aides in Virginia as a basis for behavioral objectives: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.

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