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Taxonomy of education objectives

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There are three components in the taxonomy proposed by Benjamin Bloom:

Affective Edit

The way people react emotionally, their ability to feel another living thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings.

There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:

  • Receiving - The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur.
  • Responding - The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus, the student also reacts in some way.
  • Valuing - The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information.
  • Organizing - Students can put together different values, information, and ideas and accomomdate them within their own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learnt.
  • Characterizing - The student has held a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on their behaviour so that is has become a characteristic.

Psychomotor Edit

The ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behaviour and/or skills.

Cognitive Edit

This is the ability 'to think things through'. Cognitive objectives revolve around knowledge and comprehension of any given topic.

There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:

Knowledge
Exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers
  • Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts
  • Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology
  • Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field - principles and generalizations, theories and structures
Comprehension
Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas
  • Translation
  • Interpretation
  • Extrapolation
Application
Using new knowledge. Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way
Analysis
Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations
  • Analysis of elements
  • Analysis of relationships
  • Analysis of organizational principles
Synthesis
Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions
  • Production of a unique communication
  • Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations
  • Derivation of a set of abstract relations
Evaluation
Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria
  • Judgments in terms of internal evidence
  • Judgments in terms of external criteria

See alsoEdit

ReferenceEdit

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals; pp. 201-207; B. S. Bloom (Ed.) David McKay Company, Inc. 1956.gl:Taxonomía de Bloom da:Taksonomi for indlæringsmål

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