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Task-negative (TN) is one of two elements of the default mode (the other element being Task-positive). Its main function is to reorient attention towards salient stimuli. TN is considered to be involved mostly, if not entirely, in involuntary actions. The neural network is right hemisphere lateralized and includes the right temporal-parietal junction and the right ventral frontal cortex.[1] This system shows activity increases upon detection of salient targets, especially when they appear in unexpected locations.[2][3][4][5][6] Activity increases also are observed in the ventral system after abrupt changes in sensory stimuli,[7] at the onset and offset of task blocks,[8] and at the end of a completed trial.[9]

Role in disease Edit

Studies have reported a hyper-connectivity of TN brain regions in depression during rest.[10][11]

References Edit

  1. Fox, M.D., Corbetta, M., Snyder, A.Z., Vincent, J.L., & Raichle, M.E. (2006). Spontaneous neuronal activity distinguishes human dorsal and ventral attention systems. PNAS, 103, 10046-10051.
  2. Posner, M. I. & Petersen, S. E. (1990). Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13, 25–42.
  3. Corbetta, M., Kincade, J. M., Ollinger, J. M., McAvoy, M. P. & Shulman, G. L. (2000). Nature Neuroscience, 3, 292–297.
  4. Astafiev, S. V., Shulman, G. I., Stanley, C. M., Snyder, A. Z., Van Essen, D. C. & Corbetta, M. (2003). Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 4689–4699.
  5. Ast afiev, S. V., St anley, C. M., Shulman, G. L. & Corbetta, M. (2004) Nature Neuroscience, 7, 542–548.
  6. Kincade, J. M., Abrams, R. A., Astafiev, S. V., Shulman, G. I. & Corbetta, M. (2005). Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 4593– 4604.
  7. Downar, J., Crawley, A. P., Mikulis, D. J. & Dav is, K. D. (2000) Nature Neuroscience, 3, 277–283.
  8. Fox, M. D., Snyder, A. Z., Barch, D. M., Gusnard, D. A. & Raichle, M. E. (2005). NeuroImage, 28, 956–966.
  9. Shulman, G. I., Tansy, A. P., Kincade, M., Petersen, S. E., McAvoy, M. P. & Corbetta, M. (2002). Cerebral Cortex, 12, 590–600.
  10. Zhou, Yuan, Yu, Chunshui; Zheng, Hua; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi (2010). Increased neural resources recruitment in the intrinsic organization in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 121 (3): 220–230.
  11. Berman, M. G., Peltier, S.; Nee, D. E.; Kross, E.; Deldin, P. J.; Jonides, J. (19 September 2010). Depression, rumination and the default network. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 6 (5): 548–555.
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