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The T-maze is a sort of maze used in maze learning experiments. It is used in animal cognition experiments.[1] and is shaped like the letter T, providing the subject, typically a rat, with a straightforward choice.

A test subject is placed at the base of the T. It must then decide whether to go left or right down either arm. Experimenters may place a reward in one arm of the maze, or different rewards may be placed in each arm. The subject may or may not be able to see what's at the end of the arm. In some cases, choosing to travel down one arm requires passing through a door which does not allow backtracking.

T-mazes can help researchers measure whether the test subjects have side preferences, alternate between choices, learn which side has a consistent outcome, or whether they have preferences between two options presented. Researchers have demonstrated that earthworms and other invertebrates are capable of having preferences in a T maze.[2] A multiple T-maze is a complex maze made of many T-junctions.

Factors in maze designEdit

Uses of the mazeEdit


See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

  1. Olton, D.S. (1979). Mazes, maps, and memory. American Psychologist, 34, 583-596).
  2. Yerkes, R.M. (1912) The intelligence of earthworms. Journal of Animal Behavior, 2, 332-352

Further readingEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

  • Blodgett, H. C., & McCutchan, K. (1947). Place versus response learning in the simple T-maze: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 37(5) Oct 1947, 412-422.
  • Blodgett, H. C., & McCutchan, K. (1948). Relative strength of place and response learning in the T maze: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 41(1) Feb 1948, 17-24.
  • Blodgett, H. C., McCutchan, K., & Mathews, R. (1949). Spatial learning in the T-maze: the influence of direction, turn, and food location: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 39(6) Dec 1949, 800-809.
  • Brody, A. L. (1965). Nonreinforcement in a noncorrection T maze: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 60(3) Dec 1965, 428-431.
  • Broom, S. L. (2003). Performance on a t-maze task as a predictor of behavioral response in the chick social separation-stress paradigm. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Brown, W. L. (1946). The effects of a common start-finish locus on orientation and behavior in a multiple-T maze: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 39(6) Dec 1946, 331-338.
  • Bush, R. R., & Wilson, T. R. (1956). Two-choice behavior of paradise fish: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 51(5) May 1956, 315-322.
  • Capaldi, E. J., Alptekin, S., Miller, D. J., & Barry, K. (1992). The role of instrumental responses in memory retrieval in a T-maze: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B: Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 45B(1) Jul 1992, 65-76.
  • Carvalho-Netto, E. F., & Nunes-de-Souza, R. L. (2004). Use of the elevated T-maze to study anxiety in mice: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 148(1-2) Jan 2004, 119-132.
  • Christian, B., McConnaughey, K., Bethea, E., Brantley, S., Coffey, A., Hammond, L., et al. (2004). Chronic aspartame affects T-maze performance, brain cholinergic receptors and Na-super(+),K-super(+)-ATPase in rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 78(1) May 2004, 121-127.
  • Clark, J. W., & Miller, S. B. (1966). The development of rapid running in T-mazes in the absence of obvious rewards: Psychonomic Science Vol 4(3) 1966, 127-128.
  • Clayton, K. N. (1964). T-maze choice learning as a joint function of the reward magnitudes for the alternatives: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 58(3) Dec 1964, 333-338.
  • Cohen, J., Westlake, K., & Szelest, I. (2004). Effects of runway shift and stay rules on rats' serial pattern learning in the T-maze: Learning & Behavior Vol 32(4) Nov 2004, 500-511.
  • Cotton, J. W., & Jensen, G. D. (1963). Successive acquisitions and extinctions in a T maze: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 65(6) Jun 1963, 546-551.
  • Cotton, J. W., Jensen, G. D., & Lewis, D. J. (1962). Spontaneous recovery interval as a factor in reacquisition of T maze behavior: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 63(6) Jun 1962, 555-562.
  • Cotton, J. W., Jensen, G. D., & Lewis, D. J. (1963). Spontaneous recovery interval as a factor in reacquisition of T maze behavior: Erratum: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 66(6) Dec 1963, 600.
  • Cotton, J. W., Lewis, D. J., & Jensen, G. D. (1959). Partial reinforcement effects in a T maze: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 52(6) Dec 1959, 730-733.
  • Dember, W. N., Sherrick, M. F., & Harris, R. P., Jr. (1966). Trial-two goal arm alternation to orientation of trial-one starting stem: Psychonomic Science Vol 6(1) 1966, 31-32.
  • Denny, M. R. (1979). Long delay learning in a T-maze: Academic Psychology Bulletin Vol 1(2) Nov 1979, 135-142.
  • Dudchenko, P. A. (2001). How do animals actually solve the T maze? : Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 115(4) Aug 2001, 850-860.
  • Dudchenko, P. A., & Davidson, M. (2002). Rats use a sense of direction to alternate on T-mazes located in adjacent rooms: Animal Cognition Vol 5(2) Jun 2002, 115-118.
  • Gleitman, H., & Herman, M. M. (1962). Replication report: Latent learning in a T maze after shock in one end box: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 64(6) Dec 1962, 646.
  • Heird, J. C., Lokey, C. E., & Cogan, D. C. (1986). Repeatability and comparison of two maze tests to measure learning ability in horses: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 16(2) Sep 1986, 103-119.
  • Hill, W. F., Cotton, J. W., & Clayton, K. N. (1962). Effect of reward magnitude, percentage of reinforcement, and training method on acquisition and reversal in a T maze: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 64(1) Jul 1962, 81-86.
  • Hill, W. F., Cotton, J. W., & Clayton, K. N. (1963). Effect of rewarded and nonrewarded incorrect trials on T maze learning: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 56(3) Jun 1963, 489-496.
  • Hill, W. F., & Spear, N. E. (1963). Choice between magnitudes of reward in a T maze: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 56(4) Aug 1963, 723-726.
  • Hill, W. F., & Spear, N. E. (1963). A replication of overlearning and reversal in a T maze: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 65(3) Mar 1963, 317.
  • Hill, W. F., Spear, N. E., & Clayton, K. N. (1962). T maze reversal learning after several different overtraining procedures: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 64(5) Nov 1962, 533-540.


Additional materialEdit

PapersEdit

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