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Syncope in mental health settings

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Syncope as a symptom accompanying mental disordersEdit

Syncope and blood phobiaEdit

Syncope associated with psychiatric medicationEdit



See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit


  • Brodsky, S. L. (1999). To cry, to faint. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


  • Andersen, T., Danielsen, H., Sonnesyn, H., & Sonnesyn, M. (1985). Circular questioning and shifting relationships: An attempt to describe the process of change in a family, and evaluate the therapy's influence on the changes:
  • Aronowitz, J. S., Chakos, M. H., Safferman, A. Z., & Lieberman, J. A. (1994). Syncope associated with the combination of clozapine and enalapril: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 14(6) Dec 1994, 429-430.
  • Aysun, S., & Apak, A. (2000). Syncope as a first sign of seizure disorder: Journal of Child Neurology Vol 15(1) Jan 2000, 59-61.
  • Babcock, H. H., & Powell, D. H. (1982). Vasovagal fainting: Deconditioning an autonomic syndrome: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 23(9) Sep 1982, 969-973.
  • Baux, P., Allioua, M., Nourry, C., Dardennes, R., & Kacet, S. (2000). Syncopes and psychiatric disorders: Descriptive and comparative study: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 158(10) Dec 2000, 791-801.
  • Benbadis, S. R., & Chichkova, R. (2006). Psychogenic pseudosyncope: An underestimated and provable diagnosis: Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 9(1) Aug 2006, 106-110.
  • Boulougouris, J. C., & et al. (1981). Epidemic faintness: A psychophysiological investigation: Psychiatria Clinica Vol 14(4) 1981, 215-225.
  • Bracken, P. (2002). Cultural syndromes and cognitive psychology: Transcultural Psychiatry Vol 39(2) Jun 2002, 214-219.
  • Bruns, G. (2004). Two impotencies of Freuds concerning his encounter with Jung. A reminiscence of his heart neurosis and the conflictual ambivalence in friendships with men: Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse Vol 48 2004, 105-133.
  • Buchowski, K. P., Pardo, J. P., Ringel, R., & Guarda, A. S. (2004). Inducible Syncope in Anorexia Nervosa: Two Case Reports: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 35(3) Apr 2004, 359-362.
  • Calabro, R. S., Savica, R., Lagana, A., Magaudda, A., Imbesi, D., Gallitto, G., et al. (2007). Status cataplecticus misdiagnosed as recurrent syncope: Neurological Sciences Vol 28(6) Dec 2007, 336-338.
  • Calandra-Buonaura, G., Cortelli, P., Pierangeli, G., Ribani, M. A., Barletta, G., Mazzetti, M., et al. (2008). Central and cardiovascular responses to emotional stimuli are normal in non-phobic subjects with Reflex Syncope: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 119(9) Sep 2008, 1966-1972.
  • Caracciolo, S., & Grassi, L. (1983). Anxiety in blood donors as a model of psychosomatic interaction: Medicina Psicosomatica Vol 28(3) 1983, 287-294.
  • Cohn, C. K., Kron, R. E., & Brady, J. P. (1976). A case of blood-illness-injury phobia treated behaviorally: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 162(1) Jan 1976, 65-68.
  • Connolly, J., Hallam, R. S., & Marks, I. M. (1976). Selective association of fainting with blood-injury-illness fear: Behavior Therapy Vol 7(1) Jan 1976, 8-13.
  • Connolly, K. M., O'Neill, H. K., Flessner, C. A., & Olatunji, B. O. (2006). Fear, Disgust, and Fainting in Blood-Injection-Injury Fears: A Multi-Method Approach: Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal Vol 19(4) Dec 2006, 409-420.
  • Curtis, G. C., & Thyer, B. A. (1983). Fainting on exposure to phobic stimuli: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 140(6) Jun 1983, 771-774.
  • De Jongh, A., Bongaarts, G., Vermeule, I., Visser, K., De Vos, P., & Makkes, P. (1998). Blood-injury-injection phobia and dental phobia: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 36(10) Oct 1998, 971-982.
  • Ditto, B., Adler, P. S. J., France, C., & France, J. (1995). Family history of hypertension and vasovagal symptoms during blood donation: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 18(4) Aug 1995, 331-340.
  • Ditto, B., & France, C. R. (2006). The effects of applied tension on symptoms in french-speaking blood donors: A randomized trial: Health Psychology Vol 25(3) May 2006, 433-437.
  • Donadio, V., Liguori, R., Elam, M., Karlsson, T., Montagna, P., Cortelli, P., et al. (2007). Arousal elicits exaggerated inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity in phobic syncope patients: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 130(6) Jun 2007, 1653-1662.
  • Ellison, J. M., Milofsky, J. E., & Ely, E. (1990). Fluoxetine-induced bradycardia and syncope in two patients: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 51(9) Sep 1990, 385-386.
  • Evans, R. W. (2006). The risk of vasovagal syncope to family and friends observing a lumbar puncture: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 46(1) Jan 2006, 179.
  • Falao, J. (1988). Hypnosis in a case of functional syncope: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening Vol 25(6) Jun 1988, 393-400.
  • Feder, R. (1991). Bradycardia and syncope induced by fluoxetine: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 52(3) Mar 1991, 139.
  • Ferguson, E. (2001). Intellect and somatic health: Associations with hypochondriacal concerns, perceived threat and fainting: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 70(6) Nov-Dec 2001, 319-327.
  • Fischer, D. (1981). Psychoanalysis, psychiatry and acculturation: Psychopathologie Africaine Vol 17(1-3) 1981, 387-393.
  • Foster, M., & Spiegel, D. R. (2008). Use of donepezil in the treatment of cognitive impairments of moderate traumatic brain injury: Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences Vol 20(1) Win 2008, 106.
  • Foulds, J. (1993). Cerebral circulation during treatment of blood-injury phobia: A case study: Behavioural Psychotherapy Vol 21(2) 1993, 137-146.
  • Gerlach, A. L., Nat, R., Spellmeyer, G., Vogele, C., Huster, R., Stevens, S., et al. (2006). Blood-injury phobia with and without a history of fainting: Disgust sensitivity does not explain the fainting response: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 68(2) Mar-Apr 2006, 331-339.
  • Green, S. M., Antony, M. M., McCabe, R. E., & Watling, M. A. (2007). Frequency of fainting, vomiting and incontinence in panic disorder: A descriptive study: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy Vol 14(3) May-Jun 2007, 189-197.
  • Hameedi, F. A., Sernyak, M. J., Naqvi, S. A., & Kosten, T. R. (1996). Near syncope associated with concomitant clozapine and cocaine use: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 57(8) Aug 1996, 371-372.
  • Hamilton, J. G. (1995). Needle phobia: A neglected diagnosis: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 41(2) Aug 1995, 169-175.
  • Hepburn, T., & Page, A. C. (1999). Effects of images about fear and disgust upon responses to blood-injury phobic stimuli: Behavior Therapy Vol 30(1) Win 1999, 63-77.
  • Hinton, D. (2002). 'Wind overload' and orthostatic panic among Khmer refugees: Transcultural Psychiatry Vol 39(2) Jun 2002, 220-227.
  • Hinton, D., Um, K., & Ba, P. (2001). Kyol goeu ('wind overload') Part I: A cultural syndrome of orthostatic panic among Khmer refugees: Transcultural Psychiatry Vol 38(4) Dec 2001, 403-432.
  • Hinton, D., Um, K., & Ba, P. (2001). Kyol goeu ('wind overload') Part II: Prevalence, characteristics, and mechanisms of kyol goeu and near-kyol goeu episodes of Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic: Transcultural Psychiatry Vol 38(4) Dec 2001, 433-460.
  • Kaloupek, D. G., Scott, J. R., & Khatami, V. (1985). Assessment of coping strategies associated with syncope in blood donors: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 29(2) 1985, 207-214.
  • Kavanagh, D. J., Knight, D. A., & Ponzio, V. (1986). In vivo practice for needle phobia: Report on two cases: Behaviour Change Vol 3(1) 1986, 63-69.
  • Kleinknecht, R. A. (1987). Vasovagal syncope and blood/injury fear: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 25(3) 1987, 175-178.
  • Kleinknecht, R. A. (1988). Specificity and psychosocial correlates of blood/injury fear and fainting: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 26(4) 1988, 303-309.
  • Kleinknecht, R. A., Kleinknecht, E. E., & Thorndike, R. M. (1997). The role of disgust and fear in blood and injection--related fainting symptoms: A structural equation model: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 35(12) Dec 1997, 1075-1087.
  • Kleinknecht, R. A., & Lenz, J. (1989). Blood/injury fear, fainting and avoidance of medically-related situations: A family correspondence study: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 27(5) 1989, 537-547.
  • Kleinknecht, R. A., Lenz, J., Ford, G., & DeBerard, S. (1990). Types and correlates of blood/injury-related vasovagal syncope: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 28(4) 1990, 289-295.
  • Kosky, N. (2002). A possible association between high normal and high dose olanzapine and prolongation of the PR interval: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 16(2) Jun 2002, 181-182.
  • Krantz, M. J., Rowan, S. B., & Mehler, P. S. (2005). Cocaine-Related Torsade de Pointes in a Methadone Maintenance Patient: Journal of Addictive Diseases Vol 24(1) 2005, 53-60.
  • Laske, C., Soekadar, S. R., Laszlo, R., & Plewnia, C. (2007). Brugada syndrome in a patient treated with lithium: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 164(9) Sep 2007, 1440-1441.
  • Linzer, M., Felder, A., Hackel, A., Perry, A. J., & et al. (1990). Psychiatric syncope: A new look at an old disease: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 31(2) Spr 1990, 181-188.
  • McGrady, A. V., & Argueta Bernal, G. A. (1986). Relaxation based treatment of stress induced syncope: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 17(1) Mar 1986, 23-27.
  • McGrady, A. V., Bush, E. G., & Grubb, B. P. (1997). Outcome of biofeedback-assisted relaxation for neurocardiogenic syncope and headache: A clinical replication series: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 22(1) Mar 1997, 63-72.
  • McGrady, A. V., Kern-Buell, C., Bush, E., Devonshire, R., Claggett, A. L., & Grubb, B. P. (2003). Biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy in neurocardiogenic syncope: A pilot study: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 28(3) Sep 2003, 183-192.
  • McMeekin, H. (2002). Autonomic peripheral vascular dysregulation and mood disorder: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 71(1-3) Sep 2002, 277-279.
  • Meade, M. A., France, C. R., & Peterson, L. M. (1996). Predicting vasovagal reactions in volunteer blood donors: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 40(5) May 1996, 495-501.
  • Moldovanu, I. V., & Medvedeva, M. V. (1990). Hyperventilation syncopes of psychogenic nature: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 90(5) 1990, 8-13.
  • Nutt, D. J. (1989). Endocrine response to syncope in panic disorder: Psychiatry Research Vol 28(3) Jun 1989, 351-353.
  • Olatunji, B. O., Connolly, K. M., & David, B. (2008). Behavioral avoidance and self-reported fainting symptoms in blood/injury fearful individuals: An experimental test of disgust domain specificity: Journal of Anxiety Disorders Vol 22(5) Jun 2008, 837-848.
  • Page, A. C. (1994). Blood-injury phobia: Clinical Psychology Review Vol 14(5) 1994, 443-461.
  • Pasarin, L., Tuset, A. M., Bedoya, G., Ferret, T., & et al. (1991). Personality characteristics of patients who suffer syncopes evaluated by the Phillipson Object Relations Technique: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 36(2) Dec 1991, 35-46.
  • Ritz, T., Wilhelm, F. H., Gerlach, A. L., Kullowatz, A., & Roth, W. T. (2005). End-Tidal pCO-sub-2 in Blood Phobics During Viewing of Emotion- and Disease-Related Films: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 67(4) Jul-Aug 2005, 661-668.
  • Sabin, N. (2001). The use of applied tension and cognitive therapy to manage syncope (common faint) in an older adult: Aging & Mental Health Vol 5(1) Feb 2001, 92-94.
  • Sarlo, M., Buodo, G., Munafo, M., Stegagno, L., & Palomba, D. (2008). Cardiovascular dynamics in blood phobia: Evidence for a key role of sympathetic activity in vulnerability to syncope: Psychophysiology Vol 45(6) Nov 2008, 1038-1045.
  • Shihabuddin, L., Shehadeh, A., & Agle, D. (1994). Syncope as a conversion mechanism: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 35(5) Sep-Oct 1994, 496-498.
  • Sledge, W. H. (1978). Antecedent psychological factors in the onset of vasovagal syncope: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 40(7) 1978, 568-579.
  • Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1988). Emotional fainting and the psychophysiologic response to blood and injury: Autonomic mechanisms and coping strategies: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 50(4) Jul-Aug 1988, 402-417.
  • Thyer, B. A., & Curtis, G. C. (1985). On the diphasic nature of vasovagal fainting associated with blood-injury-illness phobia: Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science Vol 20(2) Apr-Jun 1985, 84-87.
  • Valentiner, D. P., Hood, J., & Hawkins, A. (2005). Fainting history, disgust sensitivity, and reactions to disgust-eliciting film stimuli: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 38(6) Apr 2005, 1329-1339.
  • Vogele, C., Coles, J., Wardle, J., & Steptoe, A. (2003). Psychophysiologic effects of applied tension on the emotional fainting response to blood and injury: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 41(2) Feb 2003, 139-155.

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