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Social Processes: Methodology · Types of test

The Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire (SA-45)

The SA-45 is a quick (taking about 10 minutes) and comprehensive measure of psychiatric symptomatology, particularly useful in primary care settings.

Using a 5-point level-of-severity scale, the SA-45 measures:

An index of Global Severity and a Positive Symptom total also can be obtained from SA-45 results. These indices are helpful in assessing overall symptomatology.


Norms have been developed on the basis of a database of over 18,000 individuals, with group-specific data for males and females, inpatients and nonpatients, and adolescents and adults (ages 13 years and older).


  • Maruish,M. E., Bershadsky ,B. and Goldstein, L., (1998).Reliability and Validity of the SA-45: Further Evidence from a Primary Care Setting. [[Assessment|Assesment (Journal), Vol. 5, No. 4, 407-419

DOI: 10.1177/107319119800500410

  • Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire (SA-45) technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.

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