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Symbiotic infantile psychosis

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Symbiotic infantile psychosis is a form of psychosis thought to arise because of disturbances in the symbiotic mother child relationship and subsequent problems in the processes of separation and individuation.

See alsoEdit



  • Edward, J., Ruskin, N., & Turrini, P. (1991). Separation/individuation: Theory and application (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Gardner Press.
  • Ekstein, R., Wallerstein, J. S., & Mandelbaum, A. (1992). Countertransference in the residential treatment of children. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.


Ammon, G. (1973). The psychodynamics of the psychoses, the symbiosis-complex and the spectrum of the archaic ego-illnesses: Dynamische Psychiatrie Vol 6(6) 1973, 355-372.

  • Arora, M., Murthy, R. S., & Varma, V. K. (1975). Operant conditioning in symbiotic infantile psychosis: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 2(2) Sep 1975, 105-112.
  • Berger, G., & Kohl, U. (1976). Identical psychosis of a monozygous twin set: A case report: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie und ihrer Grenzgebiete Vol 44(6) Jun 1976, 373-378.
  • Berger, M. (1975). The symbiotic-psychotic syndrome (Mahler): The case of a 12-yr-old psychotic girl: Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie Vol 3(1) 1975, 17-28.
  • Bergman, A., & Chernack, M. (1982). From command to request: The development of language in the treatment of a symbiotic psychotic child: International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Vol 9 1982-1983, 583-602.
  • Bleger, J. (1972). Schizophrenia, autism, and symbiosis: Psychoanalytical approach: Acta Psiquiatrica y Psicologica de America Latina Vol 18(4) Aug 1972, 227-231.
  • Cerny, J. (1971). M. Mahler's symbiotic psychosis: Contributions to differential diagnosis with regard to L. Kanner's early infantile autism: Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie Vol 67(4) Aug 1971, 230-236.
  • Dellisch, H. (1983). The symbiotic psychotic syndrome according to M. S. Mahler: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie Vol 32(8) Nov-Dec 1983, 305-310.
  • Edward, J. (1994). The interplay between separation-individuation and the Oedipus complex: Clinical implications: Psychoanalytic Inquiry Vol 14(1) 1994, 42-57.
  • Elkisch, P. (1977). Symbolic expressive movements in a psychotic-symbiotic case: International Review of Psycho-Analysis Vol 4(1) 1977, 51-60.
  • Haag, G. (1983). Autism, early childhood psychoses, and psychoanalysis: Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence Vol 31(5-6) May-Jun 1983, 261-263.
  • Hayashi, K. (1976). The speech problems in childhood psychotherapy: Japanese Journal of Child Psychiatry Vol 17(3) 1976, 141-153.
  • Hirsch, M. (1974). The technique of confrontation in group and individual analysis: Dynamische Psychiatrie Vol 7(5) 1974, 291-300.
  • Ledoux, M. H. (1993). Symbiosis in a psychotic child: Clinical and psychopathological study: Psychiatrie de l'Enfant Vol 36(1) 1993, 27-65.
  • Marion, P. (1996). The symbolic relationship in a clinical case: Richard e Piggle Vol 4(3) Sep-Dec 1996, 323-335.
  • Pine, F. (1994). The era of separation-individuation: Psychoanalytic Inquiry Vol 14(1) 1994, 4-24.
  • Pine, F. (1996). Symbiosis and separation-individuation: critiques, answers, refinements: Richard e Piggle Vol 4(3) Sep-Dec 1996, 288-305.
  • Rogers, A. L., & Fine, H. J. (1977). Personal distance in play therapy with an autistic and a symbiotic psychotic child: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 14(1) Spr 1977, 41-48.
  • Shapiro, D. A. (1972). Symbiosis in adulthood: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 129(3) Sep 1972, 289-292.


  • Rogers, A. L. (1974). Observation of personal distance in play therapy with an autistic and a symbiotic psychotic child: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wooley, M. J. (1977). The effect of the double bind and symbiotic types of surrogate mothers on the development of infant squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus): Dissertation Abstracts International.

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