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The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. It divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe above from the temporal lobe below. It is in both hemispheres of the brain but is longer in the left hemisphere.
In the left hemisphere the lateral sulcus is between Wernicke's area and Broca's area. The Transverse temporal gyrus is also nearby. As the above areas of the brain are involved in language function the lateral sulcus appears also involved in language. '"Cortical areas that may be implicated in impaired language functioning include the Sylvian fissure." (Leonard, 2001).
It was named the sylvian fissure after Franciscus Sylvius ) (1614-1672), professor of medicine at Leiden.
|Telencephalon (cerebrum, cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres) - edit|
frontal lobe: precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex, 4), precentral sulcus, superior frontal gyrus (6, 8), middle frontal gyrus (46), inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area, 44-pars opercularis, 45-pars triangularis), prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal cortex, 9, 10, 11, 12, 47)
temporal lobe: transverse temporal gyrus (41-42-primary auditory cortex), superior temporal gyrus (38, 22-Wernicke's area), middle temporal gyrus (21), inferior temporal gyrus (20), fusiform gyrus (36, 37)
limbic lobe/fornicate gyrus: cingulate cortex/cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33), posterior cingulate (23, 31),
Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri.
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