Ad blocker interference detected!
Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers
Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.
Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Sweat, the production of a watery excretion from the skin in the process of sweating.
Sweat is not pure water; it always contains a small amount (0.2 - 1%) of solute. When a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, adaptive changes occur in their sweating mechanisms. This process is referred to as acclimatisation: the maximum rate of sweating increases and its solute composition decreases. The volume of water lost in sweat daily is highly variable, ranging from 100 to 8,000 mL/day. The solute loss can be as much as 350 mmol/day (or 90 mmol/day acclimatised) of sodium under the most extreme conditions. In a cool climate & in the absence of exercise, sodium loss can be very low (less than 5 mmols/day). Sodium concentration in sweat is 30-65 mmol/l, depending on the degree of acclimatisation.
Sweat is readily visualized by a topical indicator such as iodinated starch (minor test) or sodium alizarin sulphonate. Both of which undergo a dramatic colour change when moistened by sweat. A thermoregulatory sweat test can evaluate the body’s response to a thermal stimulus by inducing sweating through a hot box ⁄ room, thermal blanket or exercise. Failure of the topical indicator to undergo a colour change during thermoregulatory sweat testing indicates hypohidrosis, and further tests may be required to localize the lesion.
Sweat contains mainly water. It also contains minerals, as well as lactate and urea. Mineral composition will vary with the individual, the acclimatisation to heat, exercise and sweating, the particular stress source (exercise, sauna, etc.), the duration of sweating, and the composition of minerals in the body. An indication of the minerals content is: sodium 0.9 gram/liter, potassium 0.2 gram/liter, calcium 0.015 gram/liter, magnesium 0.0013 gram/liter. Also many other trace elements are excreted in sweat, again an indication of their concentration is (although measurements can vary fifteenfold): zinc (0.4 mg/l), copper (0.3 - 0.8 mg/l), iron (1 mg/l), chromium (0.1 mg/l), nickel (0.05 mg/l), lead (0.05 mg/l).  . Probably many other less abundant trace minerals will leave the body through sweating with correspondingly lower concentrations. In humans sweat is hyposmotic relative to plasma.
Other components in sweatEdit
Sweat and anxietyEdit
Sweat and drugsEdit
- ↑ Sweat mineral-element responses during 7 h of exer...[Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007] - PubMed Result
- ↑ Cohn JR, Emmett EA, The excretion of trace metals in human sweat., Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1978 Jul-Aug;8(4):270-5., http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/686643
- ↑ Saraymen et al., Sweat Copper, Zinc, Iron, Magnesium and Chomium levels in national westler. 1973
- ↑ BRS Physiology 4th edition, Linda S. Constanzo, page155
- Akutsu, T., Sekiguchi, K., Ohmori, T., & Sakurada, K. (2006). Individual Comparisons of the Levels of (E)-3-Methyl-2-Hexenoic Acid, an Axillary Odor-Related Compound, in Japanese: Chemical Senses Vol 31(6) Jul 2006, 557-563.
- Arnold, S. E., & et al. (1981). Tricyclic antidepressants and peripheral anticholinergic activity: Psychopharmacology Vol 74(4) Sep 1981, 325-328.
- Bedinger, G. M. (1984). Psychophysiological correlates of self-esteem: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bickel, A., Axelrod, F. B., Marthol, H., Schmelz, M., & Hilz, M. J. (2004). Sudomotor function in familial dysautonomia: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 75(2) Feb 2004, 275-279.
- Boudreau, L. (1972). Transcendental meditation and yoga as reciprocal inhibitors: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 3(2) Jun 1972, 97-98.
- Brignell, C. M., & Curran, H. V. (2006). Drugs, sweat, and fears: A comparison of the effects of diazepam and methylphenidate on fear conditioning: Psychopharmacology Vol 186(4) Jul 2006, 504-516.
- Brooksbank, B. W., Brown, R., & Gustafsson, J. A. (1974). The detection of 5a-androst-16-en-3a-ol in human male axillary sweat: Experientia Vol 30(8) 1974, 864-865.
- Buchanan, K. L., & Goldsmith, A. R. (2004). Noninvasive endocrine data for behavioural studies: The importance of validation: Animal Behaviour Vol 67(1) Jan 2004, 183-185.
- Campanati, A., Penna, L., Guzzo, T., Menotta, L., Silvestri, B., Lagalla, G., et al. (2003). Quality-of-Life Assessment in Patients with Hyperhidrosis Before and After Treatment with Botulinum Toxin: Results of an Open- Label Study: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 25(1) Jan 2003, 298-313.
- Carroll, W. E., Pinnick, H. A., & Whitaker, W. L. (1998). Lithium, exercise and sweat: Research Communications in Biological Psychology & Psychiatry Vol 23(3-4) 1998, 103-111.
- Catania, J. J. (1983). Age changes in the physiological characteristics and electrodermal behavior of skin: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Catania, J. J., Thompson, L. W., Michalewski, H. A., & Bowman, T. E. (1980). Comparisons of sweat gland counts, electrodermal activity, and habituation behavior in young and old groups of subjects: Psychophysiology Vol 17(2) Mar 1980, 146-152.
- Davies, C. T., & Barnes, C. (1972). Negative (eccentric) work: I. Effects of repeated exercise: Ergonomics Vol 15(1) Jan 1972, 3-14.
- Deecher, D. C., & Dorries, K. (2007). Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats) that occur in perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause life stages: Archives of Women's Mental Health Vol 10(6) 2007, 247-257.
- Dolan, K., Rouen, D., & Kimber, J. (2004). An overview of the use of urine, hair, sweat and saliva to detect drug use: Drug and Alcohol Review Vol 23(2) Jun 2004, 213-217.
- Dragovich, S. L. (1977). Manifestations of anxiety in elementary school children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Dressler, D., & Benecke, R. (2006). Pharmacology of botulinum toxins: Nervenheilkunde: Zeitschrift fur interdisziplinaere Fortbildung Vol 25(7) 2006, 521-526.
- Edelberg, R. (1983). The effects of initial levels of sweat duct filling and skin hydration on electrodermal response amplitude: Psychophysiology Vol 20(5) Sep 1983, 550-557.
- Evans, M. B. (1973). The relative effects of treatment specific and demand characteristic variables in the pre-post behavior therapy outcome research paradigm: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Fleckenstein, G. (1976). The SK Test: A simple method for measuring sweat secretion of the upper and lower extremities: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie Vol 5(1) 1976, 24-30.
- Garcia, A. M. C., Lacerda, M. G., Fonseca, l. A. T., Reis, F. M., Rodrigues, L. O. C., & Silami-Garcia, E. (2006). Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Vol 39(9) Sep 2006, 1255-1261.
- Geier, M., Bosch, O. J., & Boeckh, J. (1999). Ammonia as an attractive component of host odour for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Chemical Senses Vol 24(6) Dec 1999, 647-653.
- Golding, J. F. (1992). Phasic skin conductance activity and motion sickness: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 63(3) Mar 1992, 165-171.
- Gurrera, R. J. (1996). Diaphoresis and dehydration during neuroleptic malignant syndrome: Preliminary findings: Psychiatry Research Vol 64(2) Sep 1996, 137-145.
- Hannigan, T. P. (1995). Body Odor: The International Student and Cross-Cultural Communication: Culture & Psychology Vol 1(4) Dec 1995, 497-503.
- Johnson, G. (1972). The effects of electrolyte concentration on skin potential recordings during conditions of uncontrolled and controlled epidermal hydration: Biological Psychology Bulletin Vol 1(4) Mar 1972, 6-19.
- Kimata, H. (2007). Increase in dermcidin-derived peptides in sweat of patients with atopic eczema caused by a humorous video: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 62(1) Jan 2007, 57-59.
- Kohler, T., Dunker, J., & Zander, O. (1990). Variations in the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) during the stress of blood donation: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 37(3) 1990, 447-458.
- Kohler, T., Weber, D., & Vogele, C. (1990). The behaviour of the PSI (palmar sweat index) during two stressful laboratory situations: Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 4(3) 1990, 281-287.
- Martinez-Sanchez, F., Ortiz Soria, B., & Fernandez-Castro, J. (1998). Palmar Sweat Index: A sensitive indicator of autonomic reactivity in experimentally induced stress: Ansiedad y Estres Vol 4(2-3) 1998, 227-238.
- Meyer, F., Laitano, O., Bar-Or, O., McDougall, D., & Heingenhauser, G. J. F. (2007). Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Vol 40(1) Jan 2007, 135-143.
- Perra, R. G. (1987). Physiological differentiation and cognitive discrimination of an olfactory stimulus produced under stress: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Phillips, E. L., & et al. (1984). A field test of the sweat patch: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 8(2) Mar-Apr 1984, 233-237.
- Phillips, M. (1984). Subjective responses to the sweat-patch test for alcohol consumption: Advances in Alcohol & Substance Abuse Vol 3(4) Sum 1984, 61-67.
- Phillips, M. (1992). Measuring alcohol consumption by transdermal dosimetry. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
- Platek, S. M., Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G. (2001). Sex differences in olfactory self-recognition: Physiology & Behavior Vol 73(4) Jul 2001, 635-640.
- Schneider, R. E., & Fowles, D. C. (1979). Unibase/glycol as an electrolyte medium for recording the electrodermal duct filling response: Psychophysiology Vol 16(1) Jan 1979, 56-60.
- Shapiro, A. H. (1975). Behavior of Kibbutz and urban children receiving an injection: Psychophysiology Vol 12(1) Jan 1975, 79-82.
- Siepmann, M., Kirch, W., Krause, S., Joraschky, P., & Mueck-Weymann, M. (2004). The Effects of St. John's Wort Extract and Amitriptyline on Autonomic Responses of Blood Vessels and Sweat Glands in Healthy Volunteers: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 24(1) Feb 2004, 79-82.
- Smith, A. R., Wcislo, W. T., & O'Donnell, S. (2008). Body size shapes caste expression, and cleptoparasitism reduces body size in the facultatively eusocial bees Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae): Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 21(5) Sep 2008, 394-406.
- Stern, R. M. (1973). Voluntary control of GSRs and reports of sweating: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 36(3, Pt 2) Jun 1973, 1342.
- Stevenson, R. J., & Repacholi, B. M. (2003). Age-related changes in children's hedonic response to male body odor: Developmental Psychology Vol 39(4) Jul 2003, 670-679.
- Strahan, R., Todd, J., & Connolly, J. (1974). Comparison of sweat bottle and sweat print measures under resting-state conditions: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 6(3) May 1974, 341-343.
- Strahan, R. F., Hill, M. K., & Mount, M. K. (1977). Site differences in electrolyte concentration assessed by the water bottle sweat measure: Psychophysiology Vol 14(6) Nov 1977, 609-612.
- Strahan, R. F., Todd, J. B., & Inglis, G. B. (1974). A palmar sweat measure particularly suited for naturalistic research: Psychophysiology Vol 11(6) Nov 1974, 715-720.
- Symon, D. N., Stewart, L., & Russell, G. (1985). Abnormally high sweat osmolality in children with Down's syndrome: Journal of Mental Deficiency Research Vol 29(3) Sep 1985, 257-261.
- Turpin, G., & Clements, K. (1993). Electrodermal activity and psychopathology: The development of the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) as an applied measure for use in clinical settings. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Van der Goes Van Naters, W. M., & Rinkes, T. H. (1993). Taste stimuli for tsetse flies on the human skin: Chemical Senses Vol 18(4) Aug 1993, 437-444.
- Waldinger, M. D., Berendsen, H. H. G., & Schweitzer, D. H. (2000). Treatment of hot flushes with mirtazapine: Four case reports: Maturitas Vol 36(3) Oct 2000, 165-168.
- Waterhouse, J., Aizawa, S., Nevill, A., Edwards, B., Weinert, D., Atkinson, G., et al. (2007). Rectal Temperature, Distal Sweat Rate, and Forearm Blood Flow Following Mild Exercise at Two Phases of the Circadian Cycle: Chronobiology International Vol 24(1) Feb 2007, 63-85.
- Winhusen, T. M., Somoza, E. C., Singal, B., Kim, S., Horn, P. S., & Rotrosen, J. (2003). Measuring outcome in cocaine clinical trials: A comparison of sweat patches with urine toxicology and participant self-report: Addiction Vol 98(3) Mar 2003, 317-324.
- Wion, F. (1994). Estimation of similarity between human liquids and nonhuman liquids: Effects of reference point for comparison: Psychological Reports Vol 74(3, Pt 1) Jun 1994, 864-866.
- Wyart, C., Webster, W. W., Chen, J. H., Wilson, S. R., McClary, A., Khan, R. M., et al. (2007). Smelling a single component of male sweat alters levels of cortisol in women: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 27(6) Feb 2007, 1261-1265.
- Yamamoto, N., & Hatayama, T. (2005). Efficient sweat secretion decreases negative, and increases positive skin potential responses: Japanese Journal of Physiological Psychology and Psychophysiology Vol 23(3) Dec 2005, 217-226.
- Yamazaki, K. (1975). Effects of a sodium pump inhibitor on skin potential activity in human sweat glands: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 46(4) Oct 1975, 222-227.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|