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|tachykinin, precursor 1|
|Symbol(s):||TAC1 TAC2, NKNA|
|Locus:||7 q21 -q22|
|tachykinin receptor 1|
|Locus:||2 p13.1 -p12|
Substance P is an 11-amino acid polypeptide with the sequence: Arg Pro Lys Pro Gln Gln Phe Phe Gly Leu Met NH2. In the central nervous system, substance P has been associated in the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress, reinforcement, neurogenesis, respiratory rhythm, neurotoxicity, nausea / emesis and pain.
The vomiting center in the brainstem contains high concentrations of substance P and its receptor, in addition to other neurotransmitters such as choline, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, and opioids. Their activation stimulates the vomiting reflex. Different emetic pathways exist, and substance P/NK1R appears to be within the final common pathway to regulate vomiting. 
Substance P is involved in the transmission of pain impulses from peripheral receptors to the central nervous system. It has been theorized that it plays a part in fibromyalgia. Capsaicin has been shown to reduce the levels of Substance P probably by reducing the number of C-fibre nerves or causing these nerves to be more tolerant.
Substance P has been shown to stimulate cellular growth in cell culture , and it was shown that Substance P could promote wound healing of non-healing ulcers in humans.  It has also been shown to reverse diabetes in mice. 
- ↑ Hornby PJ. Central neurocircuitry associated with emesis. Am J Med 2001;111:106S-12S
- ↑ Reid TW, Murphy C, Iwahashi C, Foster B, and Mannis M. Stimulation of epithelial cell growth by the neuropeptide substance P. J Cell Biochem 1993; 52:476-485
- ↑ Brown S, Lamberts D, Reid TW, Nishida T, Murphy C. Neurophilic and Anhidrotric Keratopathy Treated with Substance P and Insulinlike Growth Factor 1. Arch Ophthalmol 1997; 115:926-927
- ↑ http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn10812-breakthrough-sheds-light-on-cause-of-diabetes.html
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