Substance Abuse and Society GlossaryEdit

Substance Abuse and Society I

Substance Abuse and Society II

Substance Abuse and Society Glossary

Table of Contents Edit

Chapter I - Drugs - What are they?
Chapter II - Who uses Drugs and why?
Chapter III - The Drugs Themselves - A nonscientific system of classification.
Chapter IV - Race, Religion, Culture and Drugs
Chapter V - Legalization - Does making drugs illegal help?

Part II

Chapter VI - Dealers and Enablers, the People behind Drug use
Chapter VII. The Ten Greatest Lies about Drugs
Chapter VIII. Prevention, Resistance, and Recovery
Summary and Conclusions

Interactive Teaching Program 10 Glossary Aberrance, aberrant - not normal, erratic, deviant, straying, irrational. Aberrant behavior is behavior which is senseless, usually anti-social, and defies control.

Acetic acid - Acetic acid is produced as a result of fermenting foods with salt and oxygen present. It has a preservative effect on food, and with drying and salting, was one of the few ways that the ancients had of preserving comestibles. It is not a preferred intoxicant, though ethyl alcohol, also a product of the same fermentation process, is.

Acid - Slang for LSD, Lysergic Acid. An extremely potent hallucinogen, easily capable of causing full-blown schizophrenia. Experimented with by the U.S. Army as a chemical warfare agent. The drug at the core of the "tune in, turn on, drop out," "way out" hippie movement. The effects on the mind are so radical that users are satisfied with anything, and will stare intently for hours at a spot on the wall, seeing in it all the grandeur of the Vatican and all the wealth and artistic beauty of the Louvre. Sold in "hits," or "trips," usually, by putting drops of acid in solution on blotter paper, tearing or cutting the paper into bits, and selling them.

Acrimonious divorce - A divorce of marriage partners who are bitter and vindictive before, during and after the separation and divorce. Sometimes they will do anything to harm or hurt the other partner, including hurting the children proceeding from the marriage. Always a cause of extreme emotional pain to the children. Opposite of amicable settlement and separation.

Adaptive Behavior - Behavior which though not necessarily logical or meaningful has some purpose, even hidden purpose, which preserves the behaving individual or group.

Addict - one who has a physiological need to take an addictive drug, especially that drug to which they are addicted. With the opiates, the cause of addiction is the replacement of dopamine by the plant derived narcotic. The addict’s body loses the ability to manufacture dopamine in the quantities needed to stave off the illness that results from both the lack of dopamine and the chemical the addict has substituted for dopamine to cause that deficiency, namely heroin, morphine or opium. The result is a violent illness called “cold turkey” by addicts, or "withdrawal" by clinicians. It is characterized by vomiting, chills, sweating, intense nausea, the shakes, and feelings of despair and depression. Most other illegal drugs are more or less addictive as a side effect. Marijuana's THC replaces serotinin, the molecule which functions as the "on-off switch" between the neurons, and caffeine, cocaine, nicotine and the other psychoactive alkaloids join in the brain's chemistry, altering its physiology to where it may not easily return to normal when deprived of the drug.

Addiction - Addiction and dependency, sometimes called psychological addiction, are closely related syndromes, or collections of symptoms. Generally an addiction requires a physiological dependency on a drug, and even dependencies so severe as to have the same effect as addictions are usually not so termed unless an essential biochemical process has been clearly "taken over" by the addictive substance. The sufferer from addiction must obtain and use a dosage of the addictive drug to regain the feelings of normalcy and well-being that the drug obtains for them. Are tobacco smokers addicted or dependent? Since nicotine withdrawal entails a variety of symptoms, all of which are sickening, it may be said that users of tobacco are addicted, however, nicotine does not "take over" any particular physiological system, but rather delivers a "shock" to the user's brain by radically elevating pulse rate and blood pressure, not unlike caffeine. However, crack cocaine users are said to be addicted, since the physiological effects of crack are so great, that the user cannot "return" to a normal physiology. Alcohol users are usually said to be dependent unless they suffer from genetically predisposed alcoholism. Marijuana users will more often than not assert they are not addicted, however THC replaces serotinin, and during the time it takes for the brain to manufacture additional serotinin to take up for the losses of the imitating biochemical caused by withdrawal from marijuana use, the user feels irritable, cranky, unable to function, etc. These symptoms may be very acute, but are not extremely sickening as is heroin withdrawal. Of all the addictive drugs, Heroin is probably the worst, or most addictive. Not only does it provide its user with an intensely pleasurable "rush" that may substitute for that obtained from sex or other pleasurable pursuits, but it is extremely addicting as well. The image of the heroin addict worshiping his drug at an altar built of a hypodermic syringe, a teaspoon and a candle, however squalorous his surroundings has come to be the first image or archetype of drug addiction. The heroin addict not only reduces all matters of personal achievement, wealth and cultural values to a "fix" of the drug, but stands ready to do the same for others (hook other victims). Slang terms include (to be) strung out, monkey on (my) back, (my) jones, (my) habit.

Adrenaline - Adrenaline is secreted by the adrenal cortex, a gland which sits on the medulla, the region which governs heartbeat and the circulatory system, as a response to “fight or flight” stimuli. It causes accelerated heartbeat and other "super-sensory" effects which cocaine, caffeine, and the amphetamines mimic.

Africa - It is not known whether the first marijuana users were Africans. Cannabis is widely used in the Middle East and India in the form of hashish, and has been used in those parts from time immemorial. However, Africa remains a stronghold of marijuana use, and other plant-derived drugs are also common. Khat, a mild stimulant/narcotic, is widely used in East Africa. These drugs are used in traditional ways, and not innovatively or experimentally, yet still, problems resulting from drug use are reported as widespread, especially irritability and violence.

Ageism, Ageist - The belief that the elderly, or older people in general, are inherently inferior to those who are younger. Ageist beliefs may be adopted by any age group with regard to an older group, even seven year olds with regard to twelve year olds. Ageism at the level of the young and teens may be one of the causes of dropping out, including retreat into drug use and its consequences.

AIDS - Auto Immune Deficiency. A debilitating and often fatal disease caused by HIV or the Human Immune Virus. HIV is spread by sharing needles, unsafe sexual contact involving the exchange of blood, saliva, and sexual fluids, and other “blood to blood” contact between human beings. Drug use has contributed heavily to the spread of HIV through diminishing the inhibitions to risky behavior, as well as through the sharing of needles by users of injectable drugs.

Alcohol - Ethyl alcohol is the product of the fermentation of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. The fermentation process normally carries through to acetic acid, but when deprived of oxygen, yeasts, the plant-like organisms that cause fermentation produce alcohol as an end product. Ethyl alcohol is a powerful intoxicant. It depresses the neuromuscular system, causing a general feeling of carelessness and euphoria. It dulls the senses, and is one of the leading causes of death on the highway through accident. Methyl alcohol, or methanol, is produced by the fermentation of wood or even the woody wastes that occur naturally in grape harvests. It may cause blindness when consumed in sufficient quantities, and was a common cause of poisoning during the days of Prohibition when college students and others who craved alcoholic drink bought their spirits from any source, no matter how uncertain the liquid's origins. See Distilled Spirits

Alcohol poisoning - Alcohol poisoning results from the over consumption of alcoholic products, usually grain alcohol or other very concentrated distilled spirits. Grain alcohol may be eighty to one-hundred percent ethyl alcohol. The symptoms are coma, or unconsciousness, depressed breathing and heart rate, and a depressed body temperature. Death may result from either suffocation or freezing, should the sufferer be out of doors in cold weather at the time of the incident. Often, vomiting complicates breathing, and the inhalation of vomit is a result of death.

Amanita muscaria, Death Cap mushroom, Amanita, the Death Cap mushroom, is probably the most toxic mushroom in existence. A meal of Amanita might poison an entire family. The effect of the poison is on the liver, causing liver necrosis or death. Should a sub-lethal dose be taken, the eater will experience vivid dreams and visions. Those suffering from liver disease have the same experience. This mushroom is a traditional intoxicant in Western Siberia, but has found little favor among young people in the West. However it remains extremely dangerous because it grows anywhere there are pine trees. Young people, who are "at risk," especially those of Russian extraction or with friends of Russian descent, might try it out, thinking it to be no more dangerous than psilocybin or cowpie mushrooms, the usual "shrooms" used by those seeking to become intoxicated. There have been several reported deaths caused in this manner, and probably many more have gone unreported.

Anarchy - The ideology which maintains that having no government is good government, and each person is a law unto themselves.

Angel dust, PCP - A powerful hallucinogen added to marijuana, usually inferior marijuana, to give it a “kick.” Commonly used with marijuana sold to poor or lower class users. The effects and after effects are not well known, but it is safe to say that repeated or long-term users risk dementia and psychosis.

Antisocial behavior - Behavior deemed antisocial is that which harms the public good, or causes the loss of property, well-being or enjoyment of life and property to those affected by the antisocial acts. Drug use is sometimes called a “victimless crime,” and therefore cannot be antisocial. However, theft, violence, intimidation and other traditional street and opportunistic crimes are closely associated with the use of illegal drugs, and so it has taken on the color of these crimes, and now it is commonly accepted that drug use is an antisocial activity.

Anxiety - A feeling that something is wrong, though it cannot be known exactly what. Anxiety is sometimes synonymous with worry, however it is generally thought of as a more permanent condition. It may sometimes occur in connection with feelings of confusion. Anxiety sufferers may resort to chemical means to alleviate, if not cure, their anxiety. Barbiturates are a favorite popular drug remedy for anxiety.

Bag, bag of dope - An indeterminate quantity of marijuana or other intoxicant. Usually a nickel or a dime (five or ten joints worth). May sell for upwards of twenty dollars. The word is taken from the bag, usually a zip lock plastic bag, which the dope is packaged in. Also used to indicate a character or collection of personality traits that the one referred to has adopted or is adopting. He's got a new bag. He's no longer a hippie,... he's a greaser, now.

Barbiturates, barbies, dolls, downers - Sedatives which sufferers of anxiety take to alleviate their symptoms. These act by slowing the heart rate and dulling the mind. Their effects may mask a variety of underlying physical and psychiatric conditions.

Bazooka - A cheap form of cocaine, formulated for the street user in South America, made by soaking coca leaves in benzene, and then collecting the residue when the benzene has evaporated from the "mash." It is a highly carcinogenic and brain-damaging way of ingesting cocaine.

Beatnik - A label for those that dropped out during the Fifties and Sixties to smoke marijuana and listen to jazz music. Avante garde is a euphemism. Generally thought of as an unkempt individual with contempt for traditional social values and mores. Beatniks may be or may have also been considered counterculture heroes or revolutionaries. The term has been applied to a kind of literature, as well, best personified by Jack Keroac, author of On the Road.

Behaviorist, Behavioral Scientist - Sociologists or social scientists who study human behavior.

Behavioral reinforcement - Certain activity must be done whether or not it is painful to the doer. Much of the work of the world is of this nature, and to obtain the will to do and finish the work despite the pain involved, the doer must be reinforced, usually by a monetary reward. However money, itself, is neutral, simply a medium of exchange, and the doer must still purchase something that they may take as a reward for the task. Sometimes that something is an illegal drug or a dose (drink) of alcohol. Other reinforcements include social approbation (the approvals of one's superiors or peers), various sexual gratifications, and material rewards of various sorts. Negative reinforcements are also possible, with a doer being punished for not accomplishing a task of one sort or another. Behavioral reinforcement is an essential part of Pavlov's theory of reflex conditioning, or psychological conditioning, which is repeated reinforcement of those behaviors the conditioner seeks to make part of the subjects behavioral reflex system.

Bennies - Benzedrine; an amphetamine or “speed.”

Benzene - A carcinogenic component of gasoline. The word the English use for gasoline. Sometimes used as an intoxicant, such as by putting a rag soaked in the substance in a paper bag and inhaling the fumes. Causes its effect (dizzying) by suffocation. Also causes liver damage when used in this way.

Blow - Slang for cocaine.

Boonies, boondocks - The rural and semi-rural places. Off the beaten track. Rundown areas away from the prosperous businesses of downtown.

Boot, boot up - When heroin users or addicts inject the drug, they first tighten a belt or other ligature around the arm they will inject the drug into. This pops out the veins, and after heating the heroin with a few drops of water in a teaspoon, and drawing it into the hypodermic needle, they find a vein with the needle. However, they don't just inject the mixture of heroin, lactose and water, the blood must be drawn back into the needle until the barrel of the hypodermic is full of the mixture. Then the entire contents of the hypodermic, blood and drug, are injected together. Drawing the blood back into the needle is called "booting." The veins they use eventually collapse, and addicts are constantly looking for new injection sites on their body. Since traces of blood remain in the needle, the practice of sharing or passing the needle results in the transmission of blood-borne diseases, mainly hepatitis and AIDS. However, other diseases may be transmitted as well.

Bud - A slang term for high quality marijuana. From the resin-coated buds of the female plant, either filled with seeds or after flowering. Other terms for marijuana are weed, herb, grass, smoke, a joint (for a cigarette of marijuana), Thai-stick (for high-potency marijuana grown in Thailand, and sess (for sansemilla, marijuana grown without seeds).

Bum trip, bummer - A bad trip on LSD. LSD highs are called trips, and sometimes the user loses all control of their emotions, visions, feelings, etc. Bad visions, unhappy feelings, or hallucinations would result in a bad trip, or bummer.

Burnout - A slang term generally taken to mean "a victim of drug psychosis." He's suffering from burnout, or he's burned out.

Burnt - Ripped off. Usually used to denote the victim of a scam involving bogus drugs. Otherwise used to indicate that a buyer has failed to pay the supplier of his drugs. "He burned a mob dude. The guy offed him." (He cheated a Mafia drug supplier. The mob murdered him.)

Buzz - A slight high, not worthy of note. A disparaging term applied to highs obtained from alcoholic beverages, especially beer, or inferior marijuana. Drug users usually are seeking a huge "rush," or to get zonked or smashed, totally wasted.

Candy, nose candy - Cocaine

Cannabinol - (Kin-NAB-in-nol) The active ingredient of marijuana, also called THC. It artificially sets off intense electrical activity in the brain, leading to wakefulness, hunger and sometimes panic and fear, called paranoia. May also cause hallucinations, feelings of silliness or giddiness, inexplicable and inappropriate sensations of hilarity, a feeling of having huge thoughts or ideas, and neuro-physical impairments of various sorts. Continued or heavy use may result in permanent or semi-permanent psychosis, or mental disease. Extreme psychological dependency, indistinguishable from physiological addiction, may also result from protracted use, as, with the continuing availability of the plant-manufactured substitute, THC, the user's brain may lose some of its ability to manufacture serotinin, a chemical essential in the thinking process. Further, many of the habits of thought and moods which a continuing user may grow accustomed to or dependent upon, and which are characteristic of marijuana intoxication, may be unattainable without use of the drug. Such is the essence of marijuana addiction or dependency.

Cannabinol receptors or synapses - The gaps between the neurons are called synapses, and thinking is the process by which neurons containing memory are linked to motor, emotion, memory and other neurons. Cannabinol, or THC, acts on these synapses to sensitize them, creating a feeling of all-knowing, visions, etc. (described in detail elsewhere). However the effect is temporary, and when the user “comes down,” they will probably feel irritable and uncomfortable. Generally, they "cure" themselves of these complaints with another dose of cannabis. The result is a psychological, if not physical dependency.

Capitalism - The belief that money, land or other capital goods create wealth, and workers are simply tools in this abstract system of production and wealth creation that depends on the will and ability of individuals to own property. Also called the natural economic system.

Carcinogenic - The property of causing cancer. Some chemicals, and even plants, are known to cause cancer. Tobacco is one of them. The carcinogenic chemical in tobacco was formerly thought to be the tars in the tobacco smoke caused by incomplete burning or smoldering of the leaf as it burns when made into cigarettes and cigars. However, chewing tobacco, or "chew," causes cancer with equal frequency. So it appears that there may be some other strong irritant or carcinogen contained in the plant, possibly the nicotine itself. There is no carcinogenic equivalent of LD50 (Lethal Dose 50 percent of study group) for carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, scientists may simply say that "a substance has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals," even if those animals are predisposed by breeding to develop tumors to begin with. Synergistic effects (the biochemical interactions of two or more compounds), lifestyle, occupational exposures, physical and emotional conditioning, all may influence the development of tumors and cancers. Health professionals therefore concern themselves mostly with the most obvious carcinogens where the public is most widely exposed, such as with tobacco in its various forms, mainly smoking and chewing tobacco, snuff and second-hand tobacco smoke.

Career criminals - Criminals who have embarked upon crime as a lifetime endeavor, an occupation or vocation. Vocational criminals study, practice and plan crimes. Their stays in prison they consider time off, and an opportunity to compare notes with other career criminals. Criminals who are not career criminals may have found themselves in circumstances which drove them to commit some crime or another, or committed a crime of passion, fury or rage in reaction to some real or imagined injustice.

Catholic - Also called the Western Church. That branch of Christianity with its seat at Rome, called the Vatican. It is the ultimate organized religion.

Chippies - Casual drug users, the drug of reference being opium. Usually from the middle- or upper-middle classes. An old term, possibly used as far back as the end of the Nineteenth Century. Sometimes used derisively by hard core users or addicts to describe dilettante drug users.

Christian - Various denominations of the Protestant faith whose common denominator is their belief in Jesus Christ. Also, followers of Jesus Christ.

Chronic poisoning - Caused by the continued ingestion of sub-lethal amounts of toxic substances over a period of time. Drug users may risk chronic poisoning as a result of continued drug use. Chronic effects are usually to the neurological system or the liver. Neurological effects include decreased attention span, shaking and spastic movements, loss of vision, memory, etc. Liver damage usually causes loss of vitality, bad skin odor, and other effects that might result from lowered red blood cell count. (The liver produces red blood cells, aids in digestion, and filters toxins from the blood.)

Cirrhosis - Liver disease, usually caused by consuming alcohol in excessive quantities over a long period of time but may caused by other drugs and disease (hepatitis) as well. The liver deteriorates, and then pockets or alveoli form within the organ. These are formed of scar tissue, and do not function as normal liver tissue functions. Before death from cirrhosis, the liver becomes inflamed and enlarged, while the sufferer becomes jaundiced. The symptoms of jaundice are yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes, weakness and fatigue, and dreaminess or sleepiness.

Cliques - Social groups formed for the purpose of advancing social ends. Though not necessarily evil in themselves, they are usually highly secretive, relying on code words, dress codes and behavior codes to communicate and distinguish outsiders from insiders, clique members from others. Thus, they lend themselves to drug use and distribution. Drug dealers and manufacturers have recently targeted high school and college social cliques with so-called designer drugs. Ecstasy is the most notorious. Drug cliques are different from drug gangs in that they purport to hold accepted and acceptable social models and ends. The members appear “clean,” maintaining grade averages and participating in sports. Later, they may hold white collar jobs. However, they are united by their desire to use alcohol and illegal drugs, and these hold a central place in their lives.

Cocaine - Coca leaves and lime are traditionally used by the Indians of the high Andes. The intense pain caused by brutal manual labor in the rare air of these heights is dulled by the small amounts of cocaine that occur naturally in the leaves of this perennial bush. It really cannot be considered a narcotic when used in this way, since the effects are too slight. However, when the leaves are gathered in great quantities, and processed using various solvents, including carcinogenic benzene, a compound of the active ingredient, cocaine hydrochloride, may be collected as a pure white powder. This is the same substance we know as "cocaine." It has been used for decades in this country as a drug with the effect of giving the user a tremendous “rush” of pleasurable sensation, as well as a feeling of immense personal power. It was the drug of the rich until the Medellin drug cartel regularized its production in the mountains around the city of the same name. This organization of drug lords then began the systematic importation of large quantities of the drug into the Miami area, where it was further distributed through the efforts of a few outlaw members of the large Cuban-American community. Just as the “fad” seemed past, and consumption seemed to peak (with terrible social costs), the smokable “rock” of cocaine was invented. This was made from baking soda, cocaine and ammonia on any stove or burner top, and crack cocaine, as it was called, hit the streets with a vengeance. Whole neighborhoods were destroyed and generations lost, as crack addiction took life after life in the same systematic way. ma...

Cocaine production - Cocaine is produced in the western mountains of South America. It is a low-growing bush, and may be easily concealed beneath canopy trees. It requires a cool and well-watered habitat, and the mountain climate is ideal. The final product is refined in primitive laboratories deep in the mountains where they are relatively safe from US backed enforcement efforts aimed at curbing cocaine production, and substituting alternative crops.

Coke - Slang for cocaine

Cold turkey - The intense illness caused when an addict to heroin, or other opiate derivatives, cannot obtain the drug. Characterized by shakes, sweating, nausea and vomiting, feelings of cold, depression and despair. The symptoms continue for about two or three days.

Colombo family - One of the New York/New Jersey Italo-American crime families that pioneered the marketing and distribution of marijuana and heroin during the Sixties. Crazy Joe Gallo was a "Columbo" who broke with the family to begin the process by "trading" with black hoodlums, while wowing (from wooing or courting) wealthy "chippies" in Harlem. He was gunned down in broad daylight as were many others as the drug trade took hold, and the various Mafia families fought for their "turf," the territory which they could claim as exclusively their own to deal or distribute drugs on.

Come down, crash - Slang meaning to lose one’s high, or feelings of euphoria, disregard for reality and other drug induced effects. Does not necessarily mean detoxification, as the user may still have enough drug in his system to have flashbacks later. The drug has merely become unavailable, either stored in the liver, brain tissue, or if fat soluble, in the user’s body fat. See flashbacks.

Communism - A political ideology which holds that capitalists have robbed the workers of the world of their tools and other means of production through the workings of various financial institutions, and these must be taken back through class conflict.

Consumerism - The belief that we are what we buy. Consumerists assert that money may be redemptive, depending upon what it is spent upon, and who knows you spent it. Yuppies are generally consumerist in their thinking. See below. Sometimes confused with Capitalism, the belief that money is the most important part of the production process, and is the creative force in society.

Conspicuous consumption - The acquiring of goods by consumers chiefly for the purpose of impressing others - friends, neighbors and onlookers. Drug dealers almost always conspicuously display the rewards of their trade, including readily available or abundant drugs, to entice others to join with them.

Conditioned reflex - Though humans are considered spirited, willful and thinking (reasoning) creatures, their reflexive behavior or responses may nonetheless be conditioned in subtle ways through reward and punishment. Though the famous Russian behaviorist and experimenter, Fydor Pavlov, used food as the behavioral conditioner, and the subjects of all his known experiments were animals, his theories of behavioral or reflex conditioning were used by American behaviorists and others to modify society's attitudes towards a wide variety of subjects, from the Japanese and the Germans during WWII, to the standard of living that would be considered "American" in the post-war decades. Usually this was done by word and image association. Drugs are very powerful behavioral conditioners, and it is known that drug dealers will use crack to condition young women to reflexively perform sexual acts for their clients. Drug dealers and enablers may also condition their targets (prospects, potential clients) and clients in other associational ways to encourage them to want and take drugs. Though conditioned reflex is the phrase usually used to describe the phenomenon, the phrases conditioned response, pyschological conditioning, and mental conditioning all refer to the same process. See Pavlov

Contact high - A high obtained by contact with others using drugs, not by using them directly. May be through inhaling second-hand smoke, or even drinking the urine of a drug user as do the tribal peoples of Western Siberia when using Amanita muscaria, or the Deathcap mushroom. Infants in their mothers’ wombs will undergo the effects of drugs through placental exchange of the chemicals.

Counterculture - The sum of those elements of society which were so opposed to the status quo that the could only be termed a counterculture. The hippies, black or student radicals, druggie dropouts, etc. in sum. Each group individually might be termed a subculture. The hippie subculture, the radical subculture, druggie subculture, etc.

Crack cocaine - Cocaine which has been roasted into smokable rocks, using baking soda and ammonia. Drugs have a more powerful and immediate effect when they are smoked, rather than snorted or eaten. The lungs carry greater amounts of the substance into the blood stream in a shorter period of time. Taking drugs by needle injection further increases the "rush" that drug users prize, however injecting drugs is not a simple operation, and street users prefer "smokable dope."

Crack house, party house - Houses which have been taken over by drug users for the purpose of using drugs. See also sex, train sex, crack sex

Crack sex - Crack cocaine is not an aphrodisiac, that is, a substance which enhances or increases the sex drive, but rather a stimulant and anesthetic which combine to give the user, especially the female user, the ability to continue in the sexual act a number of "times," and therefore take a number of different partners at one meeting (usually a "crack party"). This is an extremely dangerous practice, since the chance of spreading the AIDS virus is greatly increased. Crack dealers may encourage this practice, giving young women repeated "hits" on the crack pipe to keep them going.

Cravings - Understanding cravings is an essential prerequisite to understanding the drug problem. Cravings are irritating, nervous conditions which may be caused by vitamin or protein deficiencies, glandular deficiencies, even lack of exercise, fresh air and sunshine. Cravings are an "itch that cannot be scratched." Sometimes, the resort of the sufferer is to substances which either act anesthetically, or which otherwise satisfy the craving short of fulfilling the biological need of the sufferer. Since almost all deficiency cravings are slow to "repair," the choice of first resort of most uninformed sufferers is to a pain-killing drug, one that will dull the craving. Alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin and others fit the bill for the sufferer of cravings seeking to self-medicate themselves for the effects of various deficiencies. These drugs create cravings of their own when they subvert human physiology by replacing vital substances, and shut down the natural manufacture of these substances. Moral authorities have in the past equated cravings with external irritants and hardships, such as cold, wet, heat, etc. Moral (religious) leaders usually hold that these are to be resisted through acts of will, or satisfied through faith, charity and the workings of the other virtues. Only recently has medicine identified cravings as symptomatic of underlying medical conditions. Some of the diseases caused by vitamin or mineral deficiencies are scurvy, anemia, beriberi and pellagra. See below deficiency diseases.

Cubebs, cloves - A source of high amounts of nicotine. The amounts of nicotine in clove cigarettes greatly exceeds the amounts found in cigarettes made of tobacco, and the results of smoking these are effects nearly identical with nicotine poisoning.

Cultural relativism - Cultural relativism is the doctrine that human behavior is primarily determined by cultural imperatives. For example, the "medicine" of a Western doctor is not "better" or more advanced than a Chinese healer, but both are justifiable relative to their respective cultures. Western ways are not more "advanced" than Eastern, African or Indian ways, but each individual lives and exists relative to the dictates of their culture. Cultural relativism was an early conclusion of the Rationalists during the Age of Reason (Eighteenth Century), when Europe was still beset with hunger and disease, and the natives of the countries that the Europeans were "discovering" appeared well-fed and healthy, by comparison. Then, through industry and commerce, Europe developed a substantial middle-class, with hygiene, medicine and adequate food, and these adopted the attitude that they were "advanced," and the natives of Africa, America and India were "backward." As the benefits of education, science and technology filtered down, especially through Socialism and Communism, the masses joined the middle class in the belief that the West was "advanced" (the First World), while much of the rest of the world was "backward" (the Third World).

Dealer, drug dealer - One who distributes drugs in exchange for cash payments, sex and stolen property. Also pusher.

Defeatist - One who has lost all optimism and hope in life. A certain percentage of drug users, confronted by their own intractable dependence on drugs and the drug world, will embrace a defeatist attitude, and simply submit to whatever and wherever continuing drug use carries them.

Deficiency diseases - Deficiency diseases are illnesses caused by the lack of some vital substance in the diet. The most well-known are pellagra, beriberi, scurvy, anemia and rickets. All of these are caused by the lack of specific vitamins in the diet. With pellagra, the deficiency is thiamine. With beriberi, the deficient vitamin is niacin. Scurvy is caused by a lack of Vitamin C, anemia is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, and rickets is caused by a lack of Vitamin D. Almost all drug and substance abusers sooner or later develop deficiency related illnesses or conditions. One of the most common conditions indicative of an impending deficiency is the distended belly of the alcoholic. Bloating, as it is called, is caused by the stomach filling with gas in response to a lack of bulk food. Though not considered an illness itself, the condition might portend future diet-related illness, since it is a sign that the alcoholic has given up eating in favor of drinking alcoholic beverages. As stated in the text, deficiency diseases may have pre-illness stage symptoms, sometimes manifest as cravings, which drug users may mask by ingesting one illegal drug or substance or another. Deficiency diseases are slow to repair, even in this day of the multi-vitamin tablet. This is because diet is perhaps the most inflexible of all human habits, and more packaged foods now contain refined ingredients, especially sugars, heat-treated oils, bleached and degerminated wheat flour, polished rice, and animal fats and meats of various sorts. Preservatives may also interfere with the assimilation of vitamins since the human gut depends upon micro flora to digest ingested food and make available vitamins and proteins, and preservatives suppress the action of microbes. Multi-vitamin tablets are good sources of the known vitamins, but science is still discovering enzymes and other substances which may be critical to human health. Co-enzyme Q10 is one of the more promising recent discoveries in the field of nutritional health.

Delinquency, juvenile delinquents - Young persons who have for various reasons broken the law and defied social mores. In times past they were treated separately, leniently, and given training and second chances. Today these people are more likely to be treated as adults and punished accordingly.

return to Recovery return to Chapter 2, Who uses Drugs? Denial - A psychological syndrome, or collection of symptoms and causes, where the end result is a total and unyielding refusal of the one who denies to admit to any of the facts at issue. Denial may be so complete that the one who denies believes their assertions, and does not believe in the veracity of those matters of fact which they are denying, even if they are obvious, or they caused, created, or are at the heart of the problem. Denial is caused by an absolute inability to cope with or accept the consequences of a condition, event, sequence of events, or other matters of fact. Denial is the psychological mirror image of the shock or traumatic shock syndrome, which is where the body's systems simply fail across a wide band of measures, including loss of blood pressure and cognition, failure to maintain body temperature, decreased or failed nervous reflexes, faint breathing and faint or erratic pulse or heart rate, etc. To go into denial. He went into denial, refusing to admit he had a drug problem, and the psychotherapy sessions ended.

Dependency - The need to take drugs that arises from habit and psychological conditioning. Pavlovian response to the euphoria and other appetite satisfying qualities of drugs. See Pavlov

Dependent personality - A psychotherapeutic theory that a distinct personality preexists the individual's need for or use of various intoxicants. In brief, that personality is narcissistic, self-pitying and self-indulgent. This definitional reality creates an opportunity for the therapist to "coach" the drug dependent client out of drug use. It is a kind of "Get up and go get a job" way of approaching the problem.

Depressants - Drugs which lower the pulse rate, decrease consciousness, dull the senses, and consequently decrease anxiety or worry.

Depression - The feelings of despair that result from anxiety attacks, inability to cope, overpowering feelings of helplessness, etc. Like anxiety, depression is often accompanied by feelings of confusion., Also, a lingering feeling of unhappiness, despair, hopelessness, loneliness and other negative attitudes.

Dialectical Materialism - The chain of reasoning that holds Communism, particularly Marxist Communism, is the logical outcome of human history. Through the workings of history, the Communists believe that the entire world is fated to come under one government, a Communist one.

Distilled Spirits - The distilled spirits are made by bringing a fermented mixture of some carbohydrate, either grain, grape, potato or other, nearly to a boil, and then cooling the alcoholic vapors that arise until they condense. Some water is also driven off in the process, and so distilled spirits are rarely more than fifty percent alcohol. The main distilled spirits followed by their material of origin are rum (sugar), vodka (potatoes), brandy (grape or wine), whiskey (rye or corn) and gin (grain alcohol, however gin may be made from other sources, as well. It's only requirement is that juniper berries be steeped in the alcoholic brew). Distilled spirits are easier to consume in quantities which may result in drunkenness and alcohol poisoning than the non-distilled, fermented alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer.

Distillery - The name given to a factory specializing in the production of distilled spirits, especially rum, whiskey, grain alcohol, etc. Distillers are those who operate or own the factory. A still is the name given the actual apparatus which cooks the mash and condenses the alcohol.

Ditch weed - Hemp (non-drug grade marijuana) that grows wild in many parts of the country. Much of this low-cannabinol weed is the result of plantings that were made during WWII at the direction of the US government to find a substitute for the hempen products (mostly fiber for rope) that were imported from the Ukraine before the war.

Dolls - Barbiturates

Dopamine - A naturally occurring product of the human body, manufactured by the human body, that leads to good feelings, and feelings of satisfaction. Sexual activity may be one cause of dopamine secretion.

Dopamine receptors - When dopamine is manufactured by glands within the human brain, the bloodstream carries it to where it may attach to dopamine receptors. The result is a flood of pleasurable sensations.

Dope - Slang for drugs, especially marijuana. The longest-lasting and perhaps the first slang term for an intoxicant other than alcohol. Derived from a brand name for model aircraft glue, used to get "high" by school kids who would place a small amount in a paper bag, and then inhale the gaseous contents of the bag. See Glue sniffing

Dosages - The amount of drugs needed to cause the user to feel high. These are highly irregular, depending upon body weight, sensitivity to drugs, gender and all sorts of other factors. See overdose

Downers - Drugs which act as depressants, primarily. These drugs slow reflexes, dull sensations, and give the user a feeling of being free from anxiety, or carefree.

Drugs, illegal drugs - Substances, whether of natural or synthetic (man-made) origin, which may be used for the purposes of intoxicating the user, altering the user's mood, or bringing about mental phenomena such as hallucinations or visions. Not medicinal drugs.

Drug Addiction - See Addiction

Drug attrition - The loss to death of drug users through accident, overdose, murder by rival gangs and others, and other drug related causes.

Drug cliques - see cliques

Drug formulations - The way in which drugs are manufactured. The different formulations are the result of user preference, manufacturers’ resources and experience, etc.

Drug gangs - Secretive organizations of young people, usually from socially disadvantaged groups in society, arranged with the intent of distributing drugs. Youth or street gangs have, for the most part, become drug gangs, since their main or entire source of income is now had by distributing various illegal intoxicants and narcotics.

Drug high - High, stoned, turned on, smashed, wasted, blasted, wrecked, trippy, tripping, flying, tripping, out of it, on the wild side, ripped, sailing, in orbit, spaced out, spacey. Generally the terms for getting high off drugs are kept discreet from those indicating drunk on booze or alcohol. The division is part of a linguistic cultural divide or generational gap between the users of alcohol, the generations before the Sixties, and the users of psychedelics. However, since the young marijuana users of the Sixties are now grown and quite old, it may be certain that other terms will arise that separate these from the current and upcoming generations of drug users.

Drug plateau - A drug or alcohol plateau is an artificial platform composed of all those false hopes, false reasons, and false feeling that one obtains under the influence of one or more drugs over an extended period of time and uses as building blocks for one's career, emotional life and interpersonal relationships. Almost invariably a drug plateau is connected to or based upon those people who supply the user with their drugs, as well as to the use of the drug, and collapses when the chain of supply is broken through arrest or attrition. Though it may be reconstructed repeatedly, eventually the user will discover that even with drug-related "successes," the structure of their life is transparent to others, and credit will not fall to them, but to the drug or substance they were using, it's makers and distributors.

Drug scene - A slang term for the world of the druggie, the drug subculture.

Drugs, street drugs, recreational drugs - Illegal substances which intoxicate, addict, and otherwise modify the behavior of the user. Almost always taken with the intent to intoxicate or obtain pleasurable sensations. Marijuana, heroin, cocaine, LSD, PCP, etc.

Ego - That part of the human psyche which contains the feelings of pride and self-awareness. An egoist is one who believes in and loves entirely him- or herself.

Elation and euphoria - Feelings of flying, forgetfulness, pleasure, etc. that are sometimes identified with being high on drugs. Other less pleasurable feelings are panic, terror, confusion, and the feeling of being beside or outside of oneself.

Elitism - The belief by a few that they are better than everyone else, and so deserving of what advantages they may hold in life.

Empiricism - The scientific philosophy that holds that whatever may be known as fact must be demonstrable, or demonstrated in a systematic way that can be repeated by anyone, anywhere in the world. This may be through an experiment.

Enabler - One who allows through action or inaction drug or substance abuse or some other illegal activity. Enablers may be parents, role models of various kinds, community leaders, law enforcement personnel,... anyone who plays a part in a drug using person's life who does not directly address the question and fact of drug use. You're part of the problem, or part of the solution. There is no middle ground where drug use is concerned. This "philosophy" first surfaced in the Chicago of the Twenties, when the city became a turkey shoot for organized criminals, and the center for the distribution of illegal alcoholic beverages throughout the Midwest.

Endocrine glands - The ductless glands. These secrete important hormones, metabolites and enzymes. The best-known of these are the pineal body and the adrenal cortex

Epidemic and Endemic - Both these terms refer to the spread and frequency of disease, including drug abuse. An epidemic is a rapid spread of a given disease, effecting large numbers of people at the same time. Smallpox and the Bubonic Plague are classic epidemics. Today, the Flu remains a threat to become epidemic. Epidemics tax the ability of health care workers to care for the victims, drain society of human resources, and cause much suffering, and even mortality. The term "endemic," on the other hand, refers to diseases which are not so widespread to be epidemic, but neither can they be eradicated, either because a cure is lacking or unavailable. AIDS is now a growing epidemic, but should it be checked through vaccines and cures, it is likely that it will nonetheless remain endemic for many years, as it tends to be widely spread within groups which remain apart from traditional sources of vacines and tested and accepted pharmaceutical cures, such as homosexuals, drug users and the very poor.

Evolution - A term used in connection with both social and biological processes. Where used in connection with biology, it means that process, driven by genetic variation and mutation, whereby an existing species is divided into groups isolated from each other, and new species are created as genetic change occurs in different directions. The resultant species which cannot interbreed with those from which they are descended. Genetic mutability is a prerequisite for evolution. There are many "survivability" principles which encourage this process, and many of these are named. These "laws" are the reason that dinosaurs and mammals may follow the same general "game plan." Humans are unique in being extremely adaptable, and this is a direct result of the evolution of the human brain. As stated elsewhere in this work, the forebrain, or interpretive and intellectual faculty of the human being did not simply arise out of usage, and incremental successes. It arose "before it was needed," and has been finding new uses ever since. It is likely that the radical expansion of the midbrain, caused by bipedalism (a "balancing act" which requires a much more developed stretch reflex and balance center in the midbrain), forced the growth of the forebrain, to where it could be used for the social purposes of language, probably the prerequisite for all subsequent social and technological evolution.

Experiment, drug experiment - Where drug use is concerned, experiment is a word used to describe the activities of "college kids" (or high schoolers) who would ordinarily not be expected to become involved in the drug world. The drug, usually marijuana, but nowadays ecstasy and even crack cocaine, "appears" at a party or social gathering, and all assembled participate in using it. They "pass the joint," "pass out the pills," or "pass the crack pipe." Thus, all are equally incriminated, but since these young people hold out hopes for good jobs and middle-class lifestyles, unlike the poor and non-white users, they may say, or others may say for them, that they are simply "experimenting" with drugs, and have no intention of becoming hardened or habitual users. Increasingly, the law has rejected this "defense," and marijuana and drug use by college students and other mainstream or middle-class youth is treated with the same heavy legal hand that drug users "from the streets" might expect. This change has come about in answer to complaints of selective enforcement by members of disadvantaged socio-economic groups, as well as various higher-court rulings and directives. The notion that drugs may be "experimented with" began in the Sixties when college students began using drugs with ever greater frequency. The Mafia and other drug interests don't discourage the idea, but are satisfied that whatever excuse a neophyte user gives for their use, they will "graduate" from one level of intoxication and addiction to another, until they have "found their drug," or become hopelessly dependent on or addicted to one of the hard drugs, preferably heroin or crack cocaine.

Family, crime family, Mafia - Individuals organized for the pursuit of illegal activities. Generally, they call themselves “families,” in imitation of the extended families of Sicily and Southern Italy. The leader or patriarch is known as a “Don” or “Vosce” (meaning “voice”). However, the underlings carry quasi-military titles, such as “lieutenant,” not “brother,” or “sister.” They are not democratic in organization, but rely upon the strength of the leader and the need for absolute security and obedience in the pursuit of their criminal activity for their coherency. Thus, they differ from gangs, which might have several leaders, and regulate themselves through various councils and other sham democratic proceedings. See Mafia

Fannon, Franz - An Algerian writer of the Sixties who predicted rising discontent in the Third World even as it entered the economic stages that would bring prosperity to many. He called this “The paradox of rising expectations,” and asserted that popular expectations would be defeated frequently enough to bring on revolutions where logically they should not occur, namely where colonialists had been thrown out, and where natural resources, such as oil, were plentiful enough to fuel economic growth. The paradox of rising expectations may also exist on a micro-level within this country, with those expecting the good life, or to enjoy the American standard of living, and finding themselves disappointed, turning to anti-social, if not revolutionary solutions.

Far out, way out - Wild! Awesome! Fat! Slang for incredible, unbelievable, etc.

Fix - A dose of injectable opium products, such as morphine and heroin. See shoot up.

Flashback - A recurrence of an episode of drug intoxication, though no drug has been used. Often used in connection with LSD, a powerful synthetic hallucinogen. Flashbacks are similar to psychotic episodes such as schizophrenics sometimes experience.

Freud, Sigmund - A world-famous psychologist, the father of psychoanalysis. He maintained that the psyche grew and matured, just as the body does. The progression was from an infantile or oral stage to increasingly ego-directed forms of behavior. His work still forms the basis of the psychiatric profession as psychiatrists try and disentangle human lives.

Gangs - Groups organized for the purpose of promoting and obtaining criminal ends. Also, for self-defense or mutual assistance where social conflict exists. Never for self-improvement or self-help. See drug gangs, cliques, Mafia

Generation gap - Sixties counter culture thinkers believed that the generations were irrevocably separated by many issues, and the sum of these constituted an unbridgeable gap, the generation gap.

Genovese family - A Mafia family that made it's name by disavowing violent means to settle disputes within and without the family. This strategy proved very successful in keeping law enforcement at bay. They were in part responsible for the successful large-scale distribution of crack-cocaine in the New York/New Jersey area. Finally brought down when one of their dope rings (in Princeton, New Jersey), run by a black "lieutenant" by the name of Melvin Thomas, was penetrated by undercover agents, and Mr. Thomas turned state's evidence. The ring operated out of a Princeton American Legion Post (veterans of foreign wars) headquarters building in Princeton's Afro-American neighborhood.

Gin - A distilled, alcoholic product made of juniper berries steeped in grain alcohol. Bathtub gin was manufactured during the years of Prohibition when porcelain tubs were used for the steeping or soaking process.

Glue - Dope. The source of one of the longest-lasting slang words for drugs. Airplane dope or model-building dope was the original name for a kind of glue made for builders of model airplanes. It contained benzene and other volatiles which some young people found would make them dizzy or "high" (like flying) if they "sniffed" it. Sniffing was done by putting a small amount of the dope in a paper bag, letting it volatilize, and then inhaling the fumes. It was a cheap and nearly undetectable way of getting high. Gasoline, paint and almost any solvent has the same effect caused by excluding oxygen from the lungs, or partial suffocation. Usually rags are doused with gasoline or some similarly volatile substance, and then placed in a bag to concentrate the fumes for inhalation. Brain and liver damage may result.

Goof - Slang for ridicule, mock, laugh. Doesn’t carry the contempt, as much as the fun of mockery and ridicule. To goof on somebody or something is to laugh uncaringly or cruelly about it. Goofing may result in a violent crime should the laughter be taken the wrong way by a dangerous person.

Goof balls - Any of a number of "scrip" drugs in pill form taken above the recommended dosage to obtain a "high." Usually downers, which cause slurred speech, staggering and uncoordinated movements. Hence the name goof ball, where goof means to make a mistake, or have or cause an accident.

Grass - Slang for marijuana. Also pot, reefer, bu or boo, weed, Thai-stick,

Guru - A spiritual leader, primarily of Hindu or Asian Indian origin. Gurus were very popular with the hippies, or drug-using youth primarily involved with marijuana, hashish and other psychedelics. Indian art is deemed psychedelic by these. Most Indians, however, despise hippies as too unmaterialistic.

Habit, drug habit - Drug addicts, especially heroin addicts, refer to the frequency they need to dose themselves, and the dosage needed to keep them high and free of withdrawal symptoms, as their habit. See addiction

Hashish - Hash, hashy, hably-bably, shit, stuff, French tobacco. This is the oldest form of cannabis used in Europe. The French first brought quantities of it back to Europe from Lebanon when they occupied that country, and it was popular with the artistic set. It is usually smoked by being mixed with tobacco. Hashish is prepared from marijuana using a labor intensive process. Either the marijuana is beaten against the interior walls of special buildings, and then the residue (pollen, rosin, etc.) scraped from the walls and floors and compacted into bricks, or beaten against smooth leather which may be scraped clean of the hashish residue. Indian producers of hashish may use other processes to produce the drug. The Afghan style is to mix it with opium. The Bakaa Valley, where Lebanese hashish is produced, is an interior valley framed by a coastal range of mountains and the mountains of Syria. It is now the scene of much intrigue and plotting by various anti-Western factions.

Heads - Drug users who use psychedelics almost to the exclusion of all other drugs. Also, potheads.

Hepatitis - A viral disease of the liver which is spread by eating contaminated foodstuffs or drinking contaminated water. Sometimes spread by those preparing food or by sharing needles, "passing the joint or pipe," etc. Hepatitis B is generally not a serious illness, causing fatigue until the body has produced sufficient antibodies and "thrown off" the illness. Hepatitis C is more serious, and continues in a "quiet" stage for some time or throughout the life of the individual.

Heroin - The most physically addictive of all the narcotic products refined from opium. Heroin has much less smell than opium, and therefore the residue released from the skin and remaining on the breath is less detectable. Usually, all that remains detectable from an injection is the smell of the milk sugar used to cut the heroin. Called junk, horse, "h," stuff, a fix, scag and smack by users. Methadone, a close synthetic analog of the drug has been substituted for heroin to prevent the symptoms of withdrawal from occurring. It is a less "attractive" high to most junkies, but has stayed legal for use as a treatment for heroin addiction.

High - Feelings of euphoria, carelessness, escape and release obtained by ingesting intoxicating drugs or chemicals, such as gasoline.

Hippies - Persons who pursue a lifestyle at variance with mainstream America. Sometimes they adopt the clothing, attitudes and beliefs of Native Americans or Asian Indians. Other times, they may do anything that comes to mind when they are high on marijuana or LSD. The psychedelic counterculture. Distinguished from beatniks in that they do not use opiates, nor join with the Afro-jazz culture. The Hippie movement arose during the Sixties among the middle class and peaked in popularity at that time. It was then that "good kids" went down from their suburban homes to the hell-holes of hippiedom that sprang up across the country and drug and substance abuse began to be looked upon as something less than an indulgence for the ne'er-do-well. A minor industry grew up around the efforts of parents to retrieve their grown or nearly-grown children before they were permanently lost to society. This industry involved and employed psychiatric workers, drug specialists and counselors, rehabilitation specialists, legislators and law enforcement officials. Nonetheless, many, many young people of both sexes and all income levels were permanently lost - disappeared, murdered, suicides, jailed or vanished into anonymous hippie ghettos or communes, never again to see their families or reenter mainstream society. This was in the days of marijuana, heroin and LSD. Cocaine and crack-cocaine brought about a renewed attack on other levels of society, affecting both those who had survived the Sixties and become employable and employed, and black and minority youth who had not succumbed to heroin addiction because of the complications and difficulty of injecting the drug.

Hit - A dose of crack cocaine, taken by smoking or vaporizing a "rock" in a glass tube. To take a hit on a crack pipe. He offered me a hit. First used with regard to marijuana. A hit on a joint, but that usage gave way to toke, to take a toke on a joint, or toke it! (the joint). Also, a planned murder ordered by Mafia higher-ups or other criminals. They put a hit out on the street for him. It was given out that whoever killed him would be rewarded.

HIV - The virus that causes AIDS. A retrovirus that remains quiet in its effects, while still contagious. Infection proves nearly always fatal in the long run as the virus ruins the immune system and creates opportunities for ordinary illnesses to become crippling or fatal.

Holding - Possessing or in possession of Marijuana. It is essential that buyer and seller be ready to make the transaction as quickly possible, so the buyer must know if the dealer is "holding" or not. Also, dealers might be "known" by the buyers, but it isn't enough to know if so-and-so is a dealer to make a buy, or "score." Users must also know if the dealer is "holding."

Hoodoo - An Afro-American and Amerindian system of belief common in the Deep South. Generally, it ascribes acts and activity to spirits, including spirits of the deceased. Practitioners seek to placate angry spirits and invoke spirits to aid them in this world.

Horse - Slang for heroin. See heroin for other slang terms.

Huxley, Aldous - An English writer who authored Brave New World, a story in which the world’s inhabitants, governed by one central authority and one “great leader,” were chemically controlled through the distribution of a mild, mind-numbing substance called “Soma.”

Hypertension - A physiological condition associated with stress and overwork where the body responds by going into a continuing state of “fight or flight” response. If not treated, hypertension may result in a heart attack or other anxiety- and panic-related disorders.

Id - The part of the brain, sometimes called the sub- or unconscious, that regulates the most urgent and primal needs of humanity. It is directly descended from the same functions that occur in the lower animals, and finds its physical place or seat at the rear of the human brain, the part called the cortex.

Ideology, ideologies and drugs - Systems of beliefs which govern the political behavior of their believers or adherents, and to whom the existing government will sometimes address itself in its own defense. Some ideologies are Communism, Socialism, Fascism, or National Socialism and Nihilism. They are distinguished from religion in not holding a belief in a Divinity or divinities.

Incest - The physical and emotional infatuation of closely related individuals for each other, mother and son, father and daughter, and siblings. The consummation of sexual feelings may result in offspring which are so closely related as to be weakened or disabled by genetic failings caused by identically matched pairs of genes or alleles. This is a fact recognized from ancient times, and taboos, or prohibitions, have grown up from these remote epochs to discourage the mating of very closely related couples. Animals may mate, mother and son, father and daughter, but the normal processes of life, mostly predation, weed out the weaklings that may result. Therefore, incestuous matings are not a "problem" with the lower animals.

Incrimination, mutual incrimination - Guilt by association. Sometimes a peer group will seek to involve newcomers or those who aspire to join it by making them equally culpable (guilty, punishable) in some illegal act or crime. They are "all in it together," and must "hang together." This creates a close bond, such as that had between criminals conspiring together. Groups are not limited in this dynamic, and truly great crimes may be accomplished by mutual incrimination. Sometimes the individual so incriminated is so simply by the remoteness and unwillingness of law enforcement to become involved. The opportunity to "turn state's evidence" or "snitch" is simply not available, and the individual becomes ever more deeply involved despite him- or herself. See enabler, gangs, Mafia.

Industrial Revolution - The period of extraordinary economic growth which arrived in the United States around the turn of the Nineteenth Century after first occurring in England and Europe. Tradesmen, chiefly smithies and cloth-weavers, were brought together in factories where they might take advantage of new machinery, new sources of power, and more secure avenues of distribution. However, these workers were often, though not always, exploited by their employers, since they had lost their ability to produce the goods they had traditionally made themselves, and became dependent upon the Capitalists for their work.

The Industrial Revolution in America was in large part caused by the huge masses of wealth accumulated through the slave trade, the free land and plantation economy of the Americas which made available large amounts of cotton and other raw materials for the use of English and European weavers, as well as innovation and invention by tool makers and industrial process designers. Weaving was mechanized, and a process of making high-grade steel without hammering to be used in making tools and machines was perfected (the Bessemer or blast-furnace process). The major products which enriched the industrialists and greatly extended their spheres of influence and power were cloth, distilled alcohol, and steel and coal. The industrialists would go on to build the railways, the canal system, tenement housing, and the major shipping lines. Like the mercantilists before them, they sometimes became capitalists, lending out their profits at interest through banks and other financial institutions. The industrial revolution culminated in the assembly line production of automobiles, which revolutionized travel and living habits, and with the electronic inventions of the sixties and seventies, brought about the post-industrial world.

Intoxicant - Any substance which causes euphoria, dizziness, light-headedness, and other feelings of faintness or carelessness. From the root word toxic or poisonous.

Intravenous drug use - using drugs by injecting them with a hypodermic needle. "Booting, fixing, shooting up, etc."

IQ, human intelligence - Responses to questions as posed by those whose specialty it is to measure the capacity a person might have to solve problems, conceive of issues, and otherwise intellectualize the world. IQ are the first two letters of the words "intelligence quotient."

Islam and drugs - Though wine, the only alcoholic beverage known to Muhammad, was forbidden his followers after a bloody end to a gathering of his friends where it was drunk, hashish came under no such ban. It remains in use by Muslims to this day, especially in the Middle East. During the days of the Crusades, it was held out by the sect known as Hashishans, or Assassins, as the reward for assassinating Crusaders. Opium is used in Afghanistan and India for the reason that it numbs the body against the bitter cold of the Afghan and Hindu Kush winters. Usually it is mixed with hashish and smoked to obtain this effect.

Junk - Slang for heroin

Junkie - One who is addicted to heroin, or other addictive drugs

Juvenile delinquents - Young people who have broken laws, particularly drug laws, truancy laws and other laws pertaining to the obligations of the young to obey their parents and finish school. See delinquents

Keys, kilos - 2.2 lbs. This is the unit of measurement that drug smugglers use to quantify their shipments of marijuana, heroin and cocaine to this country. This is probably because the growers and first packagers are in Europe or Central and South America and those countries use the metric system. Once the drug has arrived in the United States, it is "broken down" into ounces, and then into quarter-ounces. At the street level, the dealer chooses an amount that will earn him the profit he seeks, and labels that a "dime" or a "nickel" bag or rock. "Dime" means ten dollar amount, and "nickel" means five dollar amount. Gram measurements are rarely used in this country.

Kick, Kick the habit - Ceasing all use of drugs, intoxicants, illegal substances. Going cold turkey. Dropping all use of an abused substance. Usually a promise made by drug users to themselves and others, but rarely consummated. "I'm going to kick,... starting tomorrow."

Label, social label, social labeling - Names, appellations, words used to describe persons or groups in society. Usually pejoratives or put downs, and always said to control or contain the group or person described.

Lactic acid - A mild relaxant produced by the action of muscles.

Leary, Timothy - A guru, or Asian Indian-style spiritual leader. He advocated the use of LSD as a way to a higher consciousness.

Legalization - The repeal of anti drug laws.

Lethal Dose, LD50 - The term lethal dose merely refers to the amount of any given substance required to cause mortality in an individual. LD50 is a scientific term which denotes the dosage of a toxic substance required to kill fifty percent of a group or population, usually experimental animals. Usually, the term LD50 is used to indicate a substance's relative toxicity. A low or minute LD50 means a substance is very toxic. A high LD50 means that a large amount of the substance must be ingested before the subject succumbs. However, it is possible that some subjects are entirely resistant to fatal poisoning by a substance, and others succumb to a small ingested amount of that toxic compound. That is why it is important to understand how the term was arrived at, and what it means.

Lobby, Political Lobby - Individuals trained and paid by special interest groups to sway legislators to vote one way or another to enact or repeal laws.

LSD - Lysergic Acid. A potent hallucinogen. The production and use of LSD, also called acid, peaked during the Sixties. Then, word got around that "trips" could become permanent (the user could suffer a psychotic break or a continuing psychotic episode indistinguishable from schizophrenia), and that it might be teratogenic, that is cause birth defects by breaking or deforming genetic material in sperm or ovum. Use dropped off thereafter. Doses of LSD were called trips, and these were manufactured with cute and allusive names like starry night, or purple haze. A single trip cost about three dollars, and could last for days, with after effects going on for even longer. Since LSD was a liquid, an acid in solution, it was sold by placing a drop on a piece of paper or blotter. A number of doses were distributed as a single sheet of paper with colored dots to mark where the LSD had been placed. These sheets could then be cut into doses by the retailer. The center of LSD development, marketing and sale was the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. There, hippies crowded together and lived on mantras (Hindu prayer-chants) and not much else, usually while tripping continuously. Most of these dispersed or died before the onset of the AIDS epidemic. LSD never became a popular Mafia drug. Its effects were too erratic, and hippies, some of whom were college-educated chemists, might manufacture and impulsively give the drug away for free, and thereby undercut any possible mob business.

Mafia - Organized crime. Originally a Sicilian term (the Black Hand, or Unione Siciliano) used to describe the secret societies that were a common response on that island to foreign domination. Later, the Sicilian Mafia was increasingly constituted to perpetrate economic crimes, such as exacting illegal taxes for water and protection. In America, the Mafia flourished during Prohibition when it took over the business of distributing alcoholic beverages from legitimate companies, and then, using the immense profits obtained by controlling the production and distribution of alcohol, branched out into other avenues of criminal endeavor. Mafiosi (pronounced ma-fee-OH-see) are the individual members (plural) of the gang. A Mafioso is one gang member. The term has come to mean any gang which seeks to promote or perpetrate vice, drug or economic crimes in a planned and organized manner, using violence and terror routinely. A white-collar or business-like style is also necessary.

Marijuana - The most commonly used drug in America. Derived from a plant, Cannabis sativa, and the essential ingredient of which is THC, or cannabinol. Mildly to strongly psychedelic in effect, it acts by sensitizing the synapses, or connections between neurons, in the brain, by replacing serotinin. Strong psychological dependencies, identical to addiction, afflict chronic or heavy users. This is probably because the brain decreases its manufacture of serotinin in the presence of high and continuing concentrations of THC. The chronic user simply and literally "cannot think" without ingesting some form of the drug. Light or casual users will suffer lesser effects, such as irritability or crankiness, when coming down off the drug.

Marijuana and human intelligence - Marijuana is known to cause a temporary and modest increase in a person's intellectual capacity. However, whether this increase in intelligence is applicable or has any effect on a user’s performance in real-world tasks where intelligence is an issue is unknown. Rather, the drug probably contributes to accidents and behavioral conditions which result in decreased productivity.

Marijuana production - In this country, marijuana, or drug-grade hemp, was first grown in the South in small plots or alongside tobacco. Later, it was heavily produced by farmers in Mexico for export to and consumption in the United States. Today Hawaii and California lead in the production of high-potency marijuana, with Mid-Western marijuana growers fast increasing their output in competition. It is an easy crop to grow, thriving on indifferent soils and rarely needs irrigation. If legalized, hemp cultivation could result in a huge industry of medical products, oil seed, animal feed, fiber or hemp, feed-stocks for plastics, and other products. It is truly nature’s miracle plant, but abuse and legislation aimed at ending that abuse have halted its commercial cultivation for the time being.

Marketing, Marketing Drugs - Illegal drugs, like any other consumable, must be distributed and marketed. To do so, drug dealers conspicuously display the fruits of their involvement with drugs, and try their best to link drugs with the most successful and vibrant elements of society. They work through secretive and complex social chains, using icons and symbols unavailable or unknown to the authorities charged with controlling the drug trade. The internet is proving to be an extremely promising avenue of development for illegal drug marketing technology.

Materialism - Materialists simply discount the existence of a spirit world, whether divine or infernal. Everything in existence may and must be quantified, demonstrated, and is open to analysis through reason and logic, they assert. Materialists should be atheistic to achieve logical consistency.

Mescaline - Hallucinogenic drug. The active ingredient of peyote, a cactus whose bud is chewed to obtain the effects of the hallucinogenic compound.

Meth, crystal meth, methedrine - Probably the strongest of the amphetamines. Popular among truck drivers and others who must stay awake long hours. Sometimes called the poor man’s cocaine. Also called ice, speed, and crank.

Milk sugar - Lactose. Used to cut heroin because it dissolves easily in water, and when injected with the drug causes no ill-effects. The strong smell of milk on a heroin user's breath or skin when none can be easily had is usually a giveaway. Heroin users themselves believe that lactose masks the smell of the heroin. Heroin is milk, and vice versa.

Mixed drugs - The most common way drugs are ingested by users. Marijuana is commonly mixed with Angel Dust or PCP by dealers, other times smoked with a “chaser” of some alcoholic drink.

Mood modifiers - Drugs that cause an change of mood, either up or down. Uppers and downers are mood modifiers. Contrast with psychedelics.

Natural drugs - Drugs, mood modifiers, etc., produced by the body. Natural drugs are drugs such as adrenaline, melantonin, dopamine, even lactic acid, certain brain regulators secreted by the pineal gland, in short, any substance which the body secrets in the course of living that acts as a stimulant or other mood modifier. Usually secreted by endocrine or ductless glands. Synthetic drugs or drugs obtained by plants often mimic natural drugs. Serotinin, the chemical which marijuana mimics, is not a natural drug in the sense that it is not a stimulant or modify moods. It regulates the electrical activity of the brain, and the active ingredient of marijuana, THC, circumvents natural limitations on this electrical activity and sets off a kind of storm of thoughts, visions and other brain-related phenomena.

Neurosis - An uncontrollable response to an underlying nervous or behavioral condition. Usually the sufferer from a neurosis is not judgment-affected, such as a psychotic person is, but uncomfortable and unable to fully control neuromuscular responses to environmental stimuli. Uncontrollable anger, grief, or other emotions, twitching, hand-washing, and inappropriate responses are some typical neurotic symptoms. Common among inhabitants of big cities where noise, pollution, congestion and living pressures all take a continuing toll on "nerves."

Neurotic - One who suffers from a neurosis.

Nietsche - A Nineteenth Century German philosopher. The most outspoken philosophical proponent of Nihilism.

Nihilism - The belief that “all is nothing, and nothing is all.”

Nitrous Oxide - Laughing gas. An old-time anesthetic used by surgeons and dentists in the Nineteenth Century and the beginning of the Twentieth. Now abused for the effect it has of reducing the user to uncontrollable laughter.

Normal, normative, norm - Ordinarily, we assume much of what we and other people do is okay. This is because they and we are adhering to social norms. Ordinarily, our behavior is normative. We do not reason out each little thing that we say or do, but simply do what is normal under the circumstances. Like social labeling, normative behavior is a kind of short-hand which speeds and facilitates everyday social transactions. Social norms may vary widely even across a very short "band" of society, according to age and gender. Class origins and aspirations, race and ethnicity expand the degree of variation. Society seeks to order normative behavior through law and custom. Violations of social norms may result in various punishments short of arrest and incarceration, such as "banning," proscription, or interdiction. Interdiction, widely used by the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages and thereafter, is the process whereby those interdicted are denied the use of society's rites and rituals, such as marriage, marches and festivals, and other vital celebrations of passages, important events and social contracts.

Oolies - Marijuana rubbed with crack cocaine. An extremely dangerous and unpredictable mix of drugs. Probably responsible for a surge of violent crime associated with drug use in Florida, particularly by young people.

Opium - Opium is produced from the opium poppy, a hardy biennial which is native to Central Asia. A white, milky sap is scraped from the immature seed pods after they have been wounded with a special knife. This is dried into a black, tarry substance, the opium, which is then built into balls and bricks for transportation to the refining centers. When the opium trade with China was at its peak, the stuff was made into large, fifty or hundred lb. balls, and these were smuggled into Chinese harbors using fast dragon boats, or canoe-like craft paddled by thirty rowers on a side. Poppies grow in the poorest soil, without irrigation, and yield a nutritious crop of edible seed as well as the opium. Therefore, their cultivation is vital to the welfare of poor farmers in Afghanistan and elsewhere, and any intensive effort to eradicate the crop should be accompanied by an effort to find replacements.

Opium production - Historically, the opium poppy was most heavily cultivated in Afghanistan and Northern India. With illegalization, cultivation moved to Eastern Turkey and Northern Thailand. Today, the cultivation of the opium poppy has reached Mexico and South America, and substantial contributions to the world’s heroin supplies are being made by farmers in those places.

Opportunistic crime - Crimes committed simply because they are possible to commit. Muggings and purse-snatchings are classic opportunistic crimes. The criminal waits for a chance to commit any of a number of simple crimes which he or she is capable of, such as shoplifting, breaking-and-entering, etc., and then for example, seeing the opportunity, grabs a purse or pocketbook from a weary subway rider without provocation or planning. Opportunistic crimes are the usual way that junkies obtain money or barter goods to purchase their doses of heroin.

Opposite effects - Drug effects which are directly opposite those expected. For example, a dose of amphetamines may cause drowsiness where the user has already used the drug for several days.

Overdose - Excessive usage, to the point of death, of any number of intoxicating substances. Heroin overdose is the most common kind of overdose, usually caused because the “cut” of the drug has been changed without the knowledge of the user or junkie. Heroin, as sold on the street, is mostly milk-sugar, and should a purer blend of the drug appear, addicts will overdose themselves until they learn the new dosage.

Paranoia - The fear of being watched, followed, listened to, prosecuted, etc. Sometimes affects schizophrenics. Paranoid schizophrenics are known to be particularly difficult to treat and help, as they are certain that everyone in the world is their enemy, including their doctors.

Pavlov, Fydor - A Russian Scientist, working within the Soviet system in the early part of the last century. His work with dogs was frightening in its implications. He cut off his experimental subjects heads, but kept them alive by attaching them to artificial circulatory systems. The conscious heads responded to food through salivating. He also developed the theory of conditioned response. In short, this states that the response of an intelligent organism may be conditioned through rewards of food or other gratifying activities or substances. The theory has been much abused, but also used to explain the success of drug dealers, particularly crack dealers, who have made sex slaves of girls desperate to obtain a hit on a crack pipe. See Conditioned Reflex, Behavioral Conditioning

Peer Pressure - The influence held by a group of similarly situated individuals over a peer simply by their shared opinion.

Peyote - A cactus whose bud contains the potent hallucinogen, mescaline.

Poisoning, partial or chronic poisoning - The disruption or destruction of vital or life processes through the ingestion of a substance inimicable to human life.

Politics - The systematic relegation of powers and duties to individuals through social organization, popular will and action, and the process of appointment.

Popular psychosis - A psychosis or delusion which is shared by a multitude of people, such as a community, country, or race.

Poppers - Amyl nitrate, an over-the-counter substance used sometimes to treat heart conditions. Raises blood pressure and increases pulse rate.

Protestant - Followers of Jesus Christ who rejected the Catholic Church in its teachings under the leadership of first Martin Luther, and then Calvin. These became known as the Lutherans and the Calvinists or Huguenots. Later, other anti-Catholic Christian leaders arose, and the number of Protestant sects is now myriad.

Psyche - The mind. All of the parts of the mind, including the superego, the ego, the id and libido. From the Greek goddess of the same name. The root for almost all terms related to the mind, psychological, psychiatric, psychic, etc.

Psychedelics - Drugs which cause hallucinations, aberrations of thought and sensation, and other neurological anomalies. Marijuana is a mood modifier and mild psychedelic, while LSD is a powerful psychedelic.

Psychoactive - Having an effect on the psyche, or human mind.

Psychology - The study of how the mind operates.

Psychosis, psychotic - A disease of the psyche. A sick mind.

Psilocybin - A hallucinogen found in a mushroom of the same name. Sometimes called cowpie mushrooms because they sprout from cow dung.

Puberty - The onset of sexual maturity. In girls, it begins about the age of seven. Boys reach sexual maturity around the age of twelve.

Pusher, drug pusher - Drug dealer, one who sells illegal drugs.

Put down - Slang for insult, demean, disrespect, show contempt for, etc.

Recovery - A process by which drug users set aside drugs as a lifestyle or habit.

Recreational drugs - A name coined by dealers and manufacturers of illegal drugs to popularize them with college-age users seeking relief from studies, exams, etc. The idea was to proffer the intoxicants as a substitute for real vacation time away from college and as an aid to enjoyment of parties, football games and other college pastimes.

Reds - Succinyl, a powerful depressant or downer. Prescribed as a pain killer. Abusers dose themselves until they feel numb and groggy.

Religion - The pursuit through ritual and education of spiritual goals. The regularization of ancient magical forms and practices, now unrecognizable as they are inseparable from everyday human social behavior and institutions.

Ritual - The codified and near-codified practice of special words, gestures, actions, etc., designed to bring the practitioner into communion with a higher consciousness or being.

Roach - A marijuana joint that has been smoked down to a nub. Roach clips are made to hold the roach while it is finished off by the users. Marijuana users sometimes have distinctively stained fingertips on the pointer and thumb from holding the roach while it is smoked down to nothing. It is thought by these that the active ingredient of the drug is concentrated in the roach along with the tars, etc.

Rock - A piece of smokable cocaine. Also a contraction of "rock and roll," a kind of popular music.

Rock and Roll - The music that grew up as the sound of youth, especially the teenager. Closely identified with rebellion and drug use by some.

Rum - A strong alcoholic beverage distilled from sugar, about forty or fifty percent alcohol compared to seven percent for beer, and twelve percent for wine.

Sacraments, sacramental - Religiously sacred objects and rituals.

Santoria - A Voodoo of the Caribbean, particularly Cuba and the Dominican Republic.

Sansemee, sansemilla (without seeds) - Marijuana weeded to remove all the "male" plants so that the female plants, those that produce the drug, will remain unpollinated and therefore seedless. The resultant seedless marijuana, prized by marijuana users, contains a greater concentration of THC. The word is taken from the Spanish words meaning "without seeds."

Score - A dealer or user’s purchase of their drug. Also used as a verb.

Schizophrenia - A psychotic condition in which the personality is shattered and fragments into distinct individual personalities within the same person. Sometimes the personalities are radically different from each other, causing a danger and unpredictability which is frightening. If the schizophrenic is paranoid, the danger is enhanced even more.

Science - The process by which the world is illuminated through observation, classification and experiment. Aristotle was a truly great philosopher of science, perhaps the greatest, but not the only one of the Ancients to successfully observe and deduce the causes of many of the phenomena we assume to be obvious in the present.

Scientific theory and experimentation - Science requires that observations be made, and then explained through logic and reasoning. Scientific theories may be demonstrated by experiments, that is the careful reproduction of the causes that effect (cause) the outcome to be proved. The experiment must be reproducible by others anytime and anyplace in the world, and the outcome must be the same.

Scrip - A word used by drug users to describe a prescription, or doctor’s orders for the dispensation of drugs regulated by laws and available only in stores licensed for the dispensation of regulated drugs. A forged prescription for drugs unavailable "over the counter," or without a prescription.

Sex, train sex, crack sex - The vicious cycle whereby young women are “hooked” on crack cocaine, and then given the drug in exchange for sexual favors. Usually the cycle is perpetuated by the crack dealer, who then entices male clients into the crack or party house, and sells them the drug while offering the young female addicts as enticements. The process is extremely risky where the spread of AIDS is concerned.

Shaman - An Animist priest. An interpreter of signs, portents, and omens in the Animist and magical faiths.

Shoot up - Fix, inject drugs by needle.

Shrooms - Psilocybin or other hallucinogenic mushrooms. See Amanita muscaria

Side effects - Effects which are not those for which the drug is taken. Undesired effects.

Sixties - The decade of the nineteen-sixties, when youthful rebellion reached a peak, and a hated war or conflict (the Vietnam War) tainted relations between the young and old.

Skin poppers - A primitive way of injecting opiates used by Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century Opium abusers. A hollow needle was fastened to an eye dropper, and the user injected a mixture of opium and alcohol with this. The technology was probably imported from Europe where medical advances made it possible.

Slavers - Businessmen who bought, sold and carried slaves from Africa to the Americas. Also, the ships used to carry such slaves. Return to Chapter III

Smack - Slang for heroin. Also junk, scag, smack, horse, "h," etc.

Smokable dope, smokable drugs - Drugs which may be used by smoking, as opposed to injectable or eatable drugs.

Socialism - The political system where the state is responsible for the education, care and occupation of its citizens through a rational explanation of human and political behavior. Capitalism and Monarchy are considered “natural systems,” whereas Socialism is a "rational" political system. Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Red China and Cuba are or were all socialist states. Fascism is a kind of Socialism which emphasizes military organization and might, and leaves private ownership of factories and other goods intact. However, the citizen of a Fascist state must believe, serve and do for the state as he or she would with any other socialist state, and might expect to be "cared for" (medical, old-age pension, education, etc.) just as they would in a socialist society. The fascist state of modern Italy was modeled after the Roman imperial state.

Social labels, social labeling - Social labels are pat and "obvious" descriptions of individuals with the intent of making the person comprehensible and "fitting" them into the label-maker's world. That one's a "wild card," or that one's a "good kid." These are very shallow phrases that unfortunately will do as the basis for much social action, more than would be possible than if thoughtful consideration were given to the individual so-labeled. Where drugs are concerned, the two most dangerous social labels are "druggie" and "dropout." See bag.

Society - The natural way in which people organize themselves in general. Also, those elements of the population that have achieved education, wealth and social standing. Click here to go to the more about... page definition.

Soma - A hypothetical drug used by the government of Aldous Huxley's brave new world to tranquilize and placate the masses.

Soul - The quality of being Afro-American or black. Usually characterized by a largeness of expression, music with a heavy beat or rythm, and the rejection of values and life-styles deemed "white" or "honky."

Soul, spirit, human spirit - An unquantifiable quality of humanity which is responsible for its greatness, kindness, and generally animates human beings.

Speedball - Heroin and Cocaine mixed together for injection.

Stimulants - Uppers, anything that accelerates the heartbeat, including nicotine, caffeine, methedrine, benzedrine and other amphetamines.

Subconscious - That part of the brain which operates without the knowledge of the conscious mind. Differs from unconscious in that the latter word is used to describe a state of mindlessness or sleep. The subconscious is active and involved even as a person goes about their daily business. The subconscious may hold the key to great power. However through evolution, we share our collective subconscious with the lower creatures, those which have not developed the ability to reason and speak, and therefore such powers are not held in great regard by European thinkers.

Succinyl - A powerful pain killer, a downer, known on the street as reds.

Superego - Sigmund Freud wrote that the psyche is ordered into three main parts. They are the superego, the ego and the id. This system corresponds roughly with that which was believed by the philosophers of antiquity, namely that the appetites guided human behavior and the intellect acted in a restraining manner. The id is that part of the brain which remains from the early or pre-human forms that humanity has passed through during the evolutionary process. It is the seat of the libido and sometimes is broadly referred to as the subconscious. Some drugs (including alcohol), through depressing mental activity in general, act to suppress the superego (the reasoning faculty of the brain located in the cerebrum) in favor of the cortical or lower brain, the seat of the libido or appetitive urges. Thus, appetites are renewed or unleashed, and participants in gatherings where alcohol is consumed may engage in behavior which in other times they might deem unwise or inappropriate and refrain from. Return to Chapter III

Synapses - The on-off switches between the neurons of the brain.

Synergistic effects - Effects, almost always unpredictable, which are enhancements or changes of other effects any and all drugs the user is taking might have. These synergistic effects may be totally unlike the central, predicted, or desired effects. Caused by combining drugs.

Taboo - A system of implicit behavioral restrictions. Though pre-scientific societies may not be able to reason out these social regulations, they are not taken less seriously, as a result. Marriage or procreation between and involving closely related persons (mother and son, sister and brother), is taboo in even the earliest social congregations of mankind. It is probably the case that the results of close inbreeding were so destructive to the small groups that were able to subsist off the land, that this taboo grew up naturally over hundreds of thousands of years., the groups having no such taboo perishing or going extinct through the destructive effects of prolonged inbreeding. Sometimes a taboo will be expressed as the displeasure of God, or gods, or the spirits of nature. "If you marry your sister, Ikitoi, the god of the smoking mountain, will belch fire and molten rock, and we will all be destroyed," might be one paraphrase of that belief.

Teenage, teenager, teenage rebel - "Teenager" became a code word for law enforcement and other authorities to indicate a young person with various difficulties and behavioral problems, first and foremost among which was substance abuse. Since they were always "high" on one thing or another, their behavior was unpredictable, and they might be engaged in the planning or commission of any number of crimes when seen "hanging out" in front of one pizzeria or another. "Good kids" were never called teenagers, but rather students, high schoolers, or college kids.

Tetrahydrocannabinol - THC, cannabinol, the active ingredient of marijuana.

Tobacco - A leafy annual which is grown for its drug content, namely nicotine. Its use was introduced to Europeans by the Amerindians who used it in sacred rituals. It was an innocuous, mild stimulant as used by the natives of the Americas since the smoke was not inhaled. The English first ground it into a powder, called snuff, which was snorted to obtain its effect, and then later perfected the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes and chewing tobacco, all of which potentiate the carcinogenic effects of the drug to where it is today a leading cause of cancer.

Toke - A hit on a joint. A sucking inspiration of the smoke of smoldering marijuana, tightly rolled into a thin cigarette. "Take a toke on it," she said. "It's good stuff."

Totem and Taboo - The title of one of Sigmund Freud’s most seminal works. Within its pages he investigates, among other things, the incest taboo as a basic cause of psychological illnesses. Sigmund Freud was first a doctor, and took his patients from all classes of Austrian society. He specialized in psychological conditions which left their sufferers unable to work or function properly in society. He theorized that many of these had their roots in human behavioral issues, and could be traced to incestuous feelings and relationships.

Toxic - Anything inimicable to life. Poisons.

Triangle trade and alcohol- The triangle of trade that ran between Africa, and the South of the United States and the Caribbean nations and colonies, and from thence to New England, Britain, France, and Germany, or the Hanseatic state of Bremen. One example of the trade is as follows. Slaves were loaded in Africa and taken to the Americas to work on giant plantations where sugar was grown. The sugar cane was made into molasses which was shipped to New England and Europe, to be distilled into rum. The rum was both sold in American cities and Europe, or carried back to Africa to be traded for more slaves. Cotton, indigo, and other agricultural commodities were also so traded. It was an immensely profitable trade, and the profits were so great as to be instrumental in bringing about the Industrial Revolution in this country, especially the construction of the railroads.

Trip, tripper, tripping - A trip is a dose of LSD and the actual "high" that one gets from it. A tripper is an LSD user or a person under the influence of LSD. Tripping is the act of taking LSD and remaining under its influence.

Turf - A slang term, usually used by cops and social workers, to describe the physical extent of a gang's rule. Should any members of another gang trespass on a gang's turf, there is cause for immediate physical action, or even for a "war" or "gang war." "The Wiley Boys' turf goes from 18nth Street to Broadway, north side of the block, and west to Beekman Place and the river. The Bolly Hooligans pick up from there, and their turf extends as far as the Public Utility Pier at 43rd Street."

Uppers - Stimulants, drugs which accelerate heartbeat, raise blood pressure, increase consciousness and activity of the neuromuscular system.

User - Slang for a user of drugs

Vice - Before the Sixties, drugs were for the most part considered a vice. Vice was probably America's foremost political issue, however the politics most often when in favor of those supporting or engaged in the vice, whether it be gambling, alcohol or prostitution. Almost every city had its "Tenderloin" district, and politicians routinely collected graft payments in exchange for protecting the keepers of brothels, saloons and gambling houses from anti-vice groups, mostly Christian "missionaries" and women's rights groups, or suffragettes. It wasn't until the Sixties, when "good kids" went down from their suburban homes to the hell-holes of hippiedom that sprang up across the country that drug and substance abuse began to be looked on as something less than an indulgence for the ne'er-do-well. A minor industry grew up around the efforts of parents to retrieve their grown or nearly-grown children before they were permanently lost to society. This industry involved and employed psychiatric workers, drug specialists and counselors, rehabilitation specialists, legislators and law enforcement officials. Nonetheless, many, many young people of both sexes and all income levels were permanently lost - disappeared, murdered, suicides, jailed or vanished into anonymous hippie ghettos or communes, never again to see their families or reenter mainstream society. This was in the days of marijuana, heroin and LSD. Cocaine and crack-cocaine brought about a renewed attack on other levels of society, affecting both those who had survived the Sixties and become employable and employed, and black and minority youth who had not succumbed to heroin addiction because of the complications and difficulty of injecting the drug.

Victimless Crimes - Victimless crimes are those which are non-violent and/or do not destroy or harm the property or person of another besides the perpetrator. However, since victimless crime harms its perpetrator, it is not truly victimless. Drugs and suicide are both considered victimless crimes by persons who believe in the concept. Ancient or traditional Western jurisprudence holds out no such category. If a crime is committed by a person against him- or herself, it takes that self for a victim, and it doesn't matter that the perpetrator and the victim are the same person.

Vietnam, Vietnam War- An armed conflict in Southeast Asia, originally between the non-Communist government of South Vietnam supported by the United States and the Viet Cong, or Communist insurgents, which dragged indecisively for ten years. War was never declared by the United States, but over a million men were eventually sent to Southeast Asia to fight, first against the Communist insurgents, and then against regular North Vietnamese army divisions. “Drugs ran the war,” is one common criticism of the way in which the war was conducted, as heroin from the Golden Triangle in Thailand and Thai-stick, or high potency marijuana, flooded into Saigon from Thailand to be distributed among American servicemen. The resistance to American participation in the conflict was popular and massive in this country, and as the draft was widened, more and more young people sought a way out, including hiding out in the countryside as hippies, and fleeing to Canada.

Viper - A user of marijuana.

Vodka - A strong alcoholic beverage distilled from fermented potatoes. See distilled spirits

Voodoo - An African religion, also widely practiced in Haiti, which relies upon communication with and enslavement of the spirits of the dead.

Weed - Slang for marijuana

Whiskey - A strong alcoholic beverage distilled from rye grain.

Whole cloth - The cloth as it comes from the fabric mill or weaver. Made from whole cloth means that a story has been made to fit the circumstances. His answer was made from whole cloth, but his cutting was very clever, and it fit perfectly.

Wicky stick - Marijuana and PCP or angel dust.

Withdrawal, drug withdrawal - The symptoms that occur when an addict is deprived of the addictive drug. In the case of heroin addiction, it is characterized by sweats, nausea, despair and depression, etc. Cold turkey.

X or ecstasy- An amphetamine product which gives the user a feeling of release from inhibition, above all. Known to “cook” the human brain by causing increased body temperature. Continued or overuse may result in decreased brain size and dementia, and sometimes in death.

Zoo, the - The name given by inmates and correctional officials to the Trenton Juvenile correctional facility of the Mercer County Correctional System. Reputed to be one of the ten worst lock-ups in the country.


More about Addiction There are several schools of thought concerning the cause and nature of drug addiction. The first uses the word exclusively for those substances which "take over" a physiological system of the body, and cause irresistible cravings. In addition to taking over the role of a naturally produced chemical, such as dopamine, deprivation of the substitute, (in the classic case, an opiate), must cause a serious sickness which the addict will want to avoid at all costs. With this school, the opiates are the model for addiction and opium, morphine and heroin are the classic addictive drugs. Nicotine, caffeine and alcohol are not considered addictive, since deprivation does not cause a serious withdrawal illness, but only cravings and minor sickness.

The second school of thought has all addictions and dependencies (and the dividing line is kept purposely vague) to be moral failings. That is, the addict or drug dependent person has simply made a choice, an evil one, and is using the addictive substance for whatever reasons or purposes he or she chooses, but usually for pleasure. This school gives primary importance to the human will, and recognizes or asserts the existence of good and evil, as well as man's ability to distinguish between good and evil.

The third school of thought has the addict suffering from a preexisting illness which predisposes the addict or substance dependent person to dependency or addiction. This illness may have its roots in the drug user's psychology, or may be caused by a personality defect (addictive or drug dependent personality). Either way, the addict's character is defective in some regard, and requires a substance, whether alcohol, opiates, cocaine, or other substances or drugs to "patch" it. Similarly, the illness of substance dependency or addiction may be caused by a genetic predisposition to succumb to addictions or dependencies of various sorts, depending upon the substance and the addict's genetic makeup. In this light, alcoholism has more recently come to be treated as a genetically caused illness rather than a moral failing, and research has focused on the presence or lack of substances in the alcoholic's body which might predispose him or her to alcoholism. The symptoms of drug-dependency as illness are cravings. These cravings may be caused by the inability of the drug or substance dependent person's body to produce a natural and necessary chemical which the drug or substance replaces with the effect of causing the dependent person or addict pleasurable sensations or relief from the cravings. Even when withdrawal is not a great problem, such as with caffeine, cravings may keep the user returning to the use of caffeinated products.

Though society would never consider culture (society itself) as a cause of addiction, sociologists, particularly cultural relativists working with cultural norms and normative models of society might consider that addictions are a byproduct of or caused by culture. Where a substance is culturally accepted, and culturally regulated, its use is never considered addictive or a dependency problem, but rather a habit of consumption. Therefore, a quart of wine a day for a Frenchman in France is not a problem, where in the U.S., the same consumer would be considered either an alcoholic, substance dependent, or addicted to the use of alcohol. The same goes for the opiates, nicotine, caffeine and other potentially addictive substances. As long as the culture allows and determines the way and rate of consumption of the substance, there can be no addiction. Cultural norms preempt questions and matters of human physiology, economics and law. The main question that a drug or alcohol user must ask himself is, "Is my use of the substance within my culture's normative standards (expectations) for me?" The proponents of this viewpoint believe that all drugs should be legalized and acculturated, and that substances are made illegal (CDS's) by political "lobbyists" or special interest groups defending the interests of the producers and sellers of competitive "addictive" substances, with the underlying support of those who stand to make windfall profits selling the substance at black-market rates, as much as by those truly defending the public's health and welfare.

return The chemical naturally made by the body (in the brain) that causes feelings of well-being, satisfaction, or satiety. return

Habits of consumption are the most deeply ingrained of all cultural, if not human behavior. It is through habits of consumption that one group displaces or supplants another through the consumption of housing and land. Habits of consumption determine savings rates, choices of occupations and target incomes, whether or not a group or individual appears prosperous or poor, whether or not a group is able to replace or increase their numbers, and of course, whether the use of a substance is an addiction or dependency, or prescribed by society or culture. Any number of vital social appearances are determined by a cultural, political, racial, ethnic or social group's habits of consumption.return

ebook_glossary.html#anchor142291" About the Dedication I had the honor of knowing Barbara Boggs Sigmund for thirty-five years. As the daughter of Hale Boggs, the Louisiana Representative to Congress who sponsored the legislation which classified marijuana as a dangerous drug, she suffered the stones and arrows hurled by the drug-using community as intensely as anyone. During those days, the years following the Sixties, the bitterness and acrimony directed in her direction was from some of the most educated people in America. College kids had learned to smoke marijuana in college, and their thoughts and attitudes were those of the leaders of succeeding generations, not poor Mexicans and blacks in inner cities. As the poster-boy of the anti-drug spot commercial of Richard Nixon’s 1968 presidential campaign, I felt sympathy and shared pain at the attacks of the drug-users. I supported Barbara in her political career, and even registered as a Democrat, voting the ticket for every election save the one which contained Ronald Reagan, the most popular president ever. Barbara died before becoming the first woman governor of New Jersey. That honor was left to Christine Whitman. She bravely battled cancer, an extremely painful cancer that began in her eye, and spread from there. But she was a trooper to the end, and those who knew her will never forget her courage and fortitude in the many years that she held sway over the politics of Princeton Borough, that college town in the wilds of New Jer-see. Return to Table of Contents

About the Author I grew up during the Sixties, that wild decade of drug use, an unending undeclared war, and economic growth the likes of which had never been seen before. I lent myself to the Republican campaign of Richard Nixon in 1968. Actually, the “shoot,” the pictures that I made for the anti-drug campaign, were done in 1966, and used in 1967-68. From there I “joined the Army.” My father, who was a noted Republican theoretician and political writer, as well as an expert in military matters, shipped me off to Europe, where I was educated in Middle Eastern matters and the containment theory of John Foster Dulles. The containment theory pertained to the containment of the Soviet Union, which was predicted to head for the Indian Ocean, sooner or later.

From Europe I the United States and Princeton, to face the Soviets in the town which hosted the largest pro-Soviet and Communist community in the country, most of whom were intellectual geniuses. That began a twenty year dialogue which was not completed until I stood from my work and breathed a sigh of relief, saying to myself, “Thank goodness, I won’t have to do that anymore.” It was the day after the news of the collapse of the Soviet Union reached the American news media. However, I was not able to leave Princeton until over ten years later. Then, with drug dealers screaming for my death (it had been spread around that I was a narc), I took the advice of the Princeton Police Department’s narcotics officer, and headed for Florida. I soon found that the part of Florida that I found myself in was a drug user’s and dealer’s paradise, even playing the role of “winter spot” for drug gang members from Northern cities. However, I was not known, so I lived pretty much unmolested while I figured out what to do next. What I decided to do, and this I had seen in dreams while living in Princeton, was to write an anti-drug e-book. This might fill a huge gap in the anti-drug movement, and also bring anti-drug forces up to par with drug users and dealers who are extremely skilled computer users, for what reason I have not yet concluded. Well, life is fraught with peril. Who knows what the consequences of this effort will be?

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