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(Adrenal cortex)
m (Reverted edits by 121.97.74.130 (talk) to last version by Lifeartist)
 
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The cortex can be divided into three distinct layers of [[biological tissue|tissue]] based on their organization. The most superficial cortical layer is the [[zona glomerulosa]], which produces [[mineralocorticoid]]s (eg, [[aldosterone]]). Beneath the glomerulosa are the [[zona fasciculata|zonae fasciculata]] and [[zona reticularis|reticularis]], which produce [[glucocorticoid]]s (eg, [[cortisol]]) and weak [[androgen]]s (eg, [[dehydroepiandrosterone]]).
 
The cortex can be divided into three distinct layers of [[biological tissue|tissue]] based on their organization. The most superficial cortical layer is the [[zona glomerulosa]], which produces [[mineralocorticoid]]s (eg, [[aldosterone]]). Beneath the glomerulosa are the [[zona fasciculata|zonae fasciculata]] and [[zona reticularis|reticularis]], which produce [[glucocorticoid]]s (eg, [[cortisol]]) and weak [[androgen]]s (eg, [[dehydroepiandrosterone]]).
   
All adrenocortical hormones are synthesised from [[cholesterol]]. Cholesterol is transported into the inner mitochondrial membrane by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), where it is converted into [[pregnenolone]] by the enzyme CYP11A. Accordingly, production of hormones in all three layers of the adrenal cortex is limited by the transportation of cholesterol into the mitochondria and by its conversion into pregnenolone. Pregnenolone can be either dehydrogenated to [[progesterone]] or hydroxylated to 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone. The steps up to this point occur in many [http://www.diagnosticautomation.com/elisa.htm steroid]-producing tissues. Subsequent steps, however, only occur in the adrenal cortex.
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All adrenocortical hormones are synthesised from [[cholesterol]]. Cholesterol is transported into the inner mitochondrial membrane by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), where it is converted into [[pregnenolone]] by the enzyme CYP11A. Accordingly, production of hormones in all three layers of the adrenal cortex is limited by the transportation of cholesterol into the mitochondria and by its conversion into pregnenolone. Pregnenolone can be either dehydrogenated to [[progesterone]] or hydroxylated to 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone. The steps up to this point occur in many steroid-producing tissues. Subsequent steps, however, only occur in the adrenal cortex.
   
 
* Progesterone ->(hydroxylation at C21)-> Deoxycorticosterone ->(two further hydroxylations)-> Aldosterone
 
* Progesterone ->(hydroxylation at C21)-> Deoxycorticosterone ->(two further hydroxylations)-> Aldosterone

Latest revision as of 16:52, April 23, 2009

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