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(New page: {{BioPsy}} {{Infobox Nerve | Name = {{PAGENAME}} | Latin = ganglion cervicothoracicum, ganglion stellatum | GraySubject = | GrayPage = | Image = Gray84...)
 
 
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The '''stellate ganglion''' (or '''cervicothoracic ganglion''') is a [[ganglion]] formed by the fusion of [[inferior cervical ganglion]] and the first [[paravertebral ganglion]].
 
   
The clinical significance of these ganglion is that they may be cut in order to decrease the symptoms exhibited by [[Raynaud's phenomenon]] and [[hyperhydrosis]] (extreme sweating) of the hands.
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{{Main|Autonomic ganglia}}
   
Injection of local anesthetics near the stellate ganglion can sometimes mitigate the symptoms of [[sympathetic nervous system|sympathetically]] mediated pain such as [[complex regional pain syndrome]] type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy). Complications associated with a stellate ganglion block include [[Horner's syndrome]], intra-arterial or intravenous injection, [[dysphagia|difficulty swallowing]], [[vocal cord]] paralysis, [[epidural]] spread of [[local anaesthetic]] and [[pneumothorax]].
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The '''stellate ganglion''' (or '''cervicothoracic ganglion''') is a [[sympathetic ganglion]] formed by the fusion of the [[inferior cervical ganglion]] and the first thoracic [[ganglion]]. Stellate ganglion is located at the level of C7 ([[7th cervical vertebrae]]), anterior to the [[transverse process]] of C7, posterior to the neck of the [[first rib]], and just below the [[subclavian artery]].
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==Clinical significance==
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The clinical significance of these ganglion is that they may be cut in order to decrease the symptoms exhibited by [[Raynaud's phenomenon]] and [[hyperhydrosis]] (extreme sweating) of the hands. Injection of local anesthetics near the stellate ganglion can sometimes mitigate the symptoms of [[sympathetic nervous system|sympathetically]] mediated pain such as [[complex regional pain syndrome]] type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy).
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Stellate-ganglion block also shows great potential as a means of reducing the number of hot flashes and night awakenings suffered by breast cancer survivors and women experiencing extreme menopause.<ref>[http://www.medwire-prime.md/research_highlights/article/40/Stellate-ganglion_block_stops_hot_flashes_in_breast_cancer_survivors.html Lancet, 2008]</ref>
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Complications associated with a stellate ganglion block include [[Horner's syndrome]], intra-arterial or intravenous injection, [[dysphagia|difficulty swallowing]], [[vocal cord]] paralysis, [[epidural]] spread of [[local anaesthetic]] and [[pneumothorax]].
   
 
Blunt needling of the stellate ganglion with [[acupuncture]] needle is used in [[Traditional Chinese Medicine]] to decrease sympathetically mediated symptoms as well.
 
Blunt needling of the stellate ganglion with [[acupuncture]] needle is used in [[Traditional Chinese Medicine]] to decrease sympathetically mediated symptoms as well.
   
==Location==
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Block of the stellate ganglion has also been explored in [[coronary artery bypass surgery]].<ref name="pmid17378781">{{cite journal |author=Yildirim V, Akay HT, Bingol H, ''et al'' |title=Pre-emptive stellate ganglion block increases the patency of radial artery grafts in coronary artery bypass surgery |journal=Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica |volume=51 |issue=4 |pages=434–40 |year=2007 |pmid=17378781 |doi=10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01260.x}}</ref>
Stellate ganglion is located at the level of C7 (7th cervical vertebrae), anterior to the transverse process of C7, posterior to the neck of the first rib, and just below the subclavian artery.
 
   
==See also==
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==References==
* [[sympathetic ganglion]]
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{{reflist}}
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
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{{Autonomic}}
 
{{Autonomic}}
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[[Category:Autonomic ganglia]]
   
[[Category:Neuroanatomy]]
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Latest revision as of 10:24, November 15, 2008

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Nerve: Stellate ganglion
Gray845
Plan of right sympathetic cord and splanchnic nerves. (Stellate ganglion not visible, but region is shown.)
[[Image:|250px|center|]]
Latin ganglion cervicothoracicum, ganglion stellatum
Gray's subject #
Innervates
From inferior cervical ganglion, first thoracic ganglia
To
MeSH A08.340.315.350.800
Main article: Autonomic ganglia

The stellate ganglion (or cervicothoracic ganglion) is a sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion and the first thoracic ganglion. Stellate ganglion is located at the level of C7 (7th cervical vertebrae), anterior to the transverse process of C7, posterior to the neck of the first rib, and just below the subclavian artery.

Clinical significanceEdit

The clinical significance of these ganglion is that they may be cut in order to decrease the symptoms exhibited by Raynaud's phenomenon and hyperhydrosis (extreme sweating) of the hands. Injection of local anesthetics near the stellate ganglion can sometimes mitigate the symptoms of sympathetically mediated pain such as complex regional pain syndrome type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy).

Stellate-ganglion block also shows great potential as a means of reducing the number of hot flashes and night awakenings suffered by breast cancer survivors and women experiencing extreme menopause.[1]

Complications associated with a stellate ganglion block include Horner's syndrome, intra-arterial or intravenous injection, difficulty swallowing, vocal cord paralysis, epidural spread of local anaesthetic and pneumothorax.

Blunt needling of the stellate ganglion with acupuncture needle is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to decrease sympathetically mediated symptoms as well.

Block of the stellate ganglion has also been explored in coronary artery bypass surgery.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Lancet, 2008
  2. Yildirim V, Akay HT, Bingol H, et al (2007). Pre-emptive stellate ganglion block increases the patency of radial artery grafts in coronary artery bypass surgery. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 51 (4): 434–40.

External linksEdit


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