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Spielberger, like Raymond Cattell and others before him, made the conceptual distinction between chronic or trait anxiety (a general propensity to be anxious) and temporary or state anxiety (a temporary state varying in intensity). To measure these concepts, he developed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory.
Key texts – Books
Spielberger, C D Gorsuch, R L (1983). Manual for the State-trait anxiety inventory (form Y) ("self-evaluation questionnaire"). Palo Alto, CA : Consulting Psychologists Press. OCLC: 12352189