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Stalking (from Middle English stalk: from Old English bestealcian; akin to Old English stelan to steal) is a legal term for a pattern of offensive behavior involving repeated harassment or other forms of invasion of a person's privacy in a manner that causes fear to its target.

Statutes vary between jurisdiction but may include such acts as:

  • repeated physical following
  • unwanted contact (by letter or other means of communication)
  • observing a person's actions closely for an extended period of time
  • contacting family members, friends, or associates inappropriately
  • cyberstalking

Stalking can also include seeking and obtaining the person's personal information in order to contact them; e.g. looking for their details on computers, electoral rolls, personal files and other material with the person's personal details without their consent. Personal details include their date of birth, marital status, home address, email address, telephone number (landline and mobile), where they work, or which school, college or university they go to; and personal information on their family and friends and any other sensitive and confidential information (e.g. medical conditions and disabilities etc.)

According to the United States National Center for Victims of Crime, an average of one out of every 12 women and one out of every 45 men will be stalked during their lifetime.{{

MotivesEdit

Many stalking cases come out of previous relationships, and are conducted by people who are otherwise considered "normal". A sizable minority of stalking cases, typically the more severe and lengthy ones, are sometimes done out of a pathological obsession or derangement. Stalking is often a form of psychological abuse.

Stalking may involve the intent to acquire private information or objects. Common victims of stalking include:

  • ex-husbands/wives;
  • ex-boyfriends/girlfriends (somebody stalking an ex-lover whom they want back, or even a present lover of an ex-lover, or other cases of unrequited love);
  • people in highly visible or social professions, such as teachers, counsellors, doctors and celebrities (a fan stalking a celebrity, or public figure); and
  • prominent dissidents, political or otherwise;
  • whistleblowers, activists, revenge for hire

According to the National Center For The Victims Of Crime, 1 out of every 12 women will be stalked during her lifetime. 1 out of 45 men will be stalked during his lifetime. Over one million women, and nearly 380,000 men are stalked annually. Exactly like any other crime or clinical disorder, stalking exists on a continuum of severity. The stalking may be so subtle that the victim may not even aware that it is happening, or the perpetrator may have no malicious intent. They may even have a sincere belief that the victim would like them, or have a desire to help the victim. Most cases of stalking do not even rise to extreme levels of violence or harassment. [1]

Many other stalking cases are not sexually-motivated at all. It must be recalled that the essence of stalking is, besides as a means to obtain private information about someone else, sometimes a way of inflicting menace. This is a tactic commonly employed by underworld organisations against their enemies, and many unscrupulous debt-collection agencies employ underworld-associated people to use this capability to their advantage, often victimising the innocent.

The 2002 National Victim Association Academy defines an additional form of stalking: The Vengeance/Terrorist stalker. Both the Vengeance stalker and Terrorist stalker (the latter sometimes called the political stalker) do not, in contrast with some of the aforementioned types of stalkers, seek a personal relationship with their victims but rather force them to emit a certain response favourable to the stalker. While the vengeance stalker's motive is "to get even" with the other person whom he/she perceives has done some wrong to them (i.e, an employee who believes is fired without justification from their job by their superior), the political stalker intends to accomplish a political agenda, also using threats and intimidation to force his/her target to refrain and/or become involved in some particular activity, regardless of the victim’s consent.[1]

Psychology and behaviorsEdit

Stalking exists on several levels. Victims may or may not be aware that it is happening, and the perpetrators may or may not have malicious intent. Stalkers may even have a sincere but misguided belief that their victims love them, or have a desire to help the victims.[2] Contrary to crimes that consist of a single act, stalking consists of a series of actions which in themselves can be legal, such as calling on the phone, sending gifts, or sending emails.[3] Most cases of stalking never escalate to extreme levels of violence or harassment.

Stalkers will often denigrate their victims which reduces the victims to objects. This allows stalkers to feel angry at victims without experiencing empathy, or they may feel that they are entitled to behave as they please toward the victims. Viewing victims as "lesser," "weak" or otherwise seriously flawed can support delusions that the victims needs to be rescued, or punished, by the stalkers. Stalkers may slander or defame the character of their victims which may isolate the victims and give the stalkers more control or a feeling of power.

Stalkers may use manipulative behavior such as bringing legal action against their victims. They may also (with the help of corrupt mental health professionals) falsely label victims with mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia. Stalkers may even threaten to commit suicide in order to coerce victims to intervene - all methods of forcing victims to have contact with the stalkers.

Stalkers may use threats and violence to frighten their victims. They may engage in vandalism and property damage (usually to victims' cars or residences). They may use physical attacks that are mostly meant to frighten. Less common are sexual assaults or physical attacks that leave serious physical injuries.[2]

Gender studies related to stalkingEdit

The great majority of stalkers are male. The demographic characteristics and psychiatric status of male and female stalkers do not differ, except that male stalkers are more likely to have a history of criminal offenses and substance abuse. The duration of the time invested in stalking and the frequency of associated violence were equivalent between male and female stalkers. Women are more likely to target someone they have known, such as a professional contact and rarely target strangers. Both male and female stalkers are more likely to target females than males. Men very rarely target other men.[4][5]

In "A Study of Women Who Stalk", by Purcell, Pathé and Mullen, the authors concluded that the two major psychiatric variables that differentiate female from male stalkers are the motivations for stalking and the choice of victims. Female stalkers more often seek intimacy with their victim, who is usually someone they already know. Victims frequently work in professional helping roles such as doctors, nurses, therapists and counselors. Context was found to differ, but the conclusion was that the intrusiveness and harmfulness did not. Female stalkers are potentially as dangerous as any male stalker.[4]

Types of stalkers (individual)Edit

Psychologists tend to group individuals who stalk into two categories: psychotic and nonpsychotic. Many stalkers have pre-existing psychotic disorders such as delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophrenia. Most stalkers are nonpsychotic and exhibit disorders or neuroses such as major depression, adjustment disorder, or substance dependence, as well as a variety of Axis II personality disorders, such as antisocial, avoidant, borderline, dependent, narcissistic, or paranoia. The nonpsychotic stalkers' pursuit of victims can be influenced by various psychological factors, including anger and hostility, projection of blame, obsession, dependency, minimization and denial, and jealousy. Conversely, as is more commonly the case, the stalker has no antipathic feelings towards the victim, but simply a longing that cannot be fulfilled due to either in their personality or their society's norms.[6]

In "A Study of Stalkers," Mullen et al (2000)[7][5] identify five types of stalkers: 

  • Rejected stalkers: pursue their victims in order to reverse, correct, or avenge a rejection (e.g. divorce, separation, termination).
  • Resentful stalkers: pursue a vendetta because of a sense of grievance against the victims - motivated mainly by the desire to frighten and distress the victim.
  • Intimacy seekers: The intimacy seeker seeks to establish an intimate, loving relationship with their victim. To them, the victim is a long sought-after soul mate, and they were 'meant' to be together.
  • Incompetent suitor: despite poor social or courting skills, they have a fixation, or in some cases a sense of entitlement to an intimate relationship with those who have attracted their amorous interest. Their victims are most often already in a dating relationship with someone else.
  • Predatory stalker: spy on the victim in order to prepare and plan an attack - usually sexual – on the victim.

Many stalkers fit categories with paranoia disorders. Intimacy-seeking stalkers often have delusional disorders involving erotomanic delusions, or delusions that are secondary to a preexisting psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. With rejected stalkers, the continual clinging to a relationship of an inadequate or dependent person couples with the entitlement of the narcissistic personality, and the persistent jealousy of the paranoid personality. In contrast, resentful stalkers demonstrate an almost “pure culture of persecution,” with delusional disorders of the paranoid type, paranoid personalities, and paranoid schizophrenia.[7]

Effects of stalkingEdit

Stalking does not consist of single incidents, but is a continuous process. Stalking can be a terrifying experience for victims, placing them at risk of psychological trauma, and possible physical harm. As Rokkers writes, "Stalking is a form of mental assault, in which the perpetrator repeatedly, unwantedly, and disruptively breaks into the life-world of the victim, with whom they have no relationship (or no longer have)....Moreover, the separated acts that make up the intrusion cannot by themselves cause the mental abuse, but do taken together (cumulative effect)."[3]

On a victim's mental and emotional healthEdit


On a victim’s physiological healthEdit

Stalking has effects on a victim’s physiological health.[8][9]


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

BooksEdit

  • Alison, E., & Alison, L. (2005). A stalking management programme: preparing advisory material for non-psychologists. Devon, United Kingdom: Willan Publishing.
  • Beatty, D. (2003). Stalking legislation in the United States. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
  • Bjerregaard, B. (2002). An empirical study of stalking victimization. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Logan, T. K., Leukefeld, C., & Walker, B. (2002). Stalking as a variant of intimate violence: Implications from a young adult sample. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • White, J., Kowalski, R. M., Lyndon, A., & Valentine, S. (2002). An integrative contextual developmental model of male stalking. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Zorza, J. (2003). Stalking controversies and emerging issues. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

PapersEdit

Abrams, K. M., & Robinson, G. E. (2002). Occupational effects of stalking: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 47(5) Jun 2002, 468-472.

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  • Amar, A. F. (2007). Behaviors that college women label as stalking or harassment: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association Vol 13(4) Aug 2007, 210-220.
  • Ashmore, R., Jones, J., Jackson, A., & Smoyak, S. (2006). A survey of mental health nurses' experiences of stalking: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Vol 13(5) Oct 2006, 562-569.
  • Barzilai, G. (2004). Culture of Patriarchy in Law: Violence from Antiquity to Modernity: Law & Society Review Vol 38(4) Dec 2004, 867-883.
  • Basile, K. C., Arias, I., Desai, S., & Thompson, M. P. (2004). The Differential Association of Intimate Partner Physical, Sexual, Psychological, and Stalking Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in a Nationally Representative Sample of Women: Journal of Traumatic Stress Vol 17(5) Oct 2004, 413-421.
  • Basile, K. C., Swahn, M. H., Chen, J., & Saltzman, L. E. (2006). Stalking in the United States: Recent National Prevalence Estimates: American Journal of Preventive Medicine Vol 31(2) Aug 2006, 172-175.
  • Bates, A. (1999). An overview of stalking: British Journal of Forensic Practice Vol 1(4) Dec 1999, 33-36.
  • Berg, A. Z., Silva, J. A., Jose, S., & Leong, G. B. (2003). "Stalking, threatening, and harassing behavior by psychiatric patients towards clinicians": Comment: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Vol 31(1) 2003, 143.
  • Berti, A., Fizzotti, C., & Maberino, C. (2006). A clinical case of gambling and stalking: Rivista di Psichiatria Vol 41(1) Jan-Feb 2006, 42-45.
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  • Berti, A., Fizzotti, C., Maberino, C., & Zanelli, E. (2006). The impact of stalking on victims: An epidemiological study in the city of Genoa: Rivista di Psichiatria Vol 41(4) Jul-Aug 2006, 241-249.
  • Binder, R. L. (2006). Commentary: The importance of professional judgment in evaluation of stalking and threatening situations: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Vol 34(4) Dec 2006, 451-454.
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  • Blaauw, E., Winkel, F. W., Arensman, E., Sheridan, L., & Freeve, A. (2002). The toll of stalking: The relationship between features of stalking and psychopathology of victims: Journal of Interpersonal Violence Vol 17(1) Jan 2002, 50-63.
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  • Deporto, D. (2007). Postseparation stalking experienced by battered women within the context of domestic violence: A phenomenological analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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DissertationsEdit

  • Ace, A. (2005). Stalking victims: Appraisals and coping strategies. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Belfi, B. J. (2003). Stalker habilitation program: A dialectical behavior approach. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

External linksEdit


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