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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
A spiritual practice, spiritual discipline or spiritual exercise includes any activity that one associates with cultivating spirituality.
Spiritual practices versus worship, east versus westEdit
Spiritual practices, like meditation, yoga and vegetarianism, have often been thought to characterize Eastern religion more than Western. Perhaps this comes from the perception that Eastern religion is more marked than Western religion by mysticism. This perception might be true to some degree, but even Western religious traditions that eschew mystical practices often have many practices and rituals which could count as a 'spiritual practice.'
In any case, Western religions, speaking generally, tend to focus on professed theological ideas more than in the east. The Islamic salat, for example, confesses the shahada, and Christian prayer in its many forms often focuses on God, God's character, Christ, or the surroundings of the person praying. By contrast, Buddhist meditation on koans focuses on absurd paradoxes as the key to the emptying of the (no-)self (anatman).
In Zen Buddhism, meditation (called zazen), the writing of poetry (especially haiku), painting, calligraphy, flower arranging, and the maintenance of Zen gardens are considered to be spiritual practices. The extensive Japanese and Korean Tea Ceremonies are also considered spiritual.
Chinese spiritual practicesEdit
New Age and new religious movement practicesEdit
Adidam (the name of both the religion and practice) taught by Adi Da Samraj uses an extensive group of spiritual practices including ceremonial invocation (puja) and body disciplines such as exercise, a modified yoga, dietary restrictions and bodily service. These are all rooted in a fundamental devotional practice of Guru bhakti based in self-understanding rather than conventional religious seeking.
Spiritual practices that have characterized Western religion include prayer, baptism, monasticism, chanting, celibacy, the use of prayer beads, mortification of the flesh, Christian meditation, and Lectio Divina.
The Religious Society of Friends (also known as the Quakers) practices silent worship, which is punctuated by vocal ministry. Quakers have little to no creed or doctrine, and so their practices constitute a large portion of their group identity.
A well-known writer on Christian spiritual disciplines, Richard Foster, has emphasized that Christian meditation focuses not of the emptying of the mind or self, but rather on the filling up of the mind or self with God. 
References & BibliographyEdit
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