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{{ClinPsy}}
 
{{ClinPsy}}
'''Somatoparaphrenia''' is a general term for various [[neurological disorders]] which involve a delusion about one side of the body.
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'''Somatoparaphrenia''' is a type of [[monothematic delusion]] where one denies ownership of a limb or an entire side of one's body. Even if provided with undeniable proof that the limb belongs to and is attached to their own body, the patient produces elaborate confabulations about whose limb it really is, or how the limb ended up on their body.<ref name="Feinberg">Feinberg, T., Venneri, A., Simone, A.M., et al. (2010). The neuroanatomy of asomatognosia and somatoparaphrenia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 81, 276-281</ref> <ref>Bottini, Gabriella; Bisiach, Edoardo; Sterzi, Roberto; Vallar, Giuseppe (2002): “Feeling touches in someone else's hand.” Neuroreport 13 (2), 249–252.</ref> In some cases, delusions become so elaborate that a limb may be treated and cared for as if it were a separate being.<ref name="Feinberg"/>
   
It can be a type of [[monothematic delusion]] where where , a person denies ownership of one of their a limbs or an entire side of one's body. As an example, a patient would believe that her or his own arm would belong to the doctor, or that another patient left it behind.
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Somatoparaphrenia differs from a similar disorder, [[asomatognosia]], which is characterized as loss of recognition of half of the body or a limb, possibly due to [[paralysis]] or [[hemispatial neglect|unilateral neglect]].<ref name="Vallar">Vallar, G. & Ronchi, R. (2009). Somatoparaphrenia: a body delusion. A review of the neuropsychological literature. Experimental Brain Research, 192:3, 533-551</ref> Asomatognosic patients may, for example, mistake their arm for the doctor’s arm, however, can be shown their limb and this error is temporarily corrected.<ref name="Feinberg"/>
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Somatoparaphrenia has been reported to occur predominately in the left arm of one's body,<ref>Coltheart, M. (2005). Delusional belief. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57, 72</ref> and it is often accompanied by left-sided paralysis and [[anosognosia]] (denial or lack of awareness) of the paralysis. The link between Somatoparaphrenia and paralysis has been documented in many clinical cases <ref>Vallar, G., & Ronchi, R. (2009). Somatoparaphrenia: A body delusion. A review of the neuropsychological literature. Experimental Brain Research, 192, 533</ref> and the question arises as to whether or not paralysis, anosognosia or both are necessary for somatoparaphrenia to occur.
   
 
==Causes==
 
==Causes==
It is believed that this disorder is caused by parietal or biparietal [[strokes]].
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It has been suggested that damage to the posterior [[cerebrum|cerebral]] regions (temporo-parietal junction) of the [[cerebral cortex|cortex]] may play a significant role in the development of Somatoparaphrenia.<ref>Feinberg TE, Haber LD, Leeds E (1990) Verbal asomatognosia. Neurology 40:1391–1394</ref><ref>Feinberg TE, Roane DM, Ali J (2000) Illusory limb movements in anosognosia for hemiplegia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 68:511–513</ref> However, more recent studies have suggested that damage to deep cortical regions such as the posterior insula <ref>Cereda C, Ghika J, Maeder P, Bogousslavsky J (2002) Strokes restricted to the insular cortex. Neurology 59:1950–1955</ref> and subcortical structures such as the [[basal ganglia]] <ref>Healton EB, Navarro C, Bressman S, Brust JC (1982) Subcortical neglect. Neurology 32:776–778</ref> may also play a significant role in the development of Somatoparaphrenia.
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It is believed that this disorder is caused by parietal or biparietal strokes. {{Citation needed|date=January 2012}} Somatoparaphrenia has been associated more often with posterior damage of the [[cerebrum|cerebral]] regions, specifically the [[temporoparietal junction]], typically seen on the right side.<ref name="Vallar"/>
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==Treatment==
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One form of treatment that has produced a more integrated body awareness is mirror therapy, in which the individual who denies that the affected limb belongs to their body looks into a mirror at the limb. Patients looking into the mirror state that the limb does belong to them; however body ownership of the limb does not remain after the mirror is taken away.<ref>Fotopoulou, A., Jenkinson, P.M., Tsakiris, M., Haggard, P., Rudd, A. & Kopelman, M.D. (2011). Mirror-view reverses somatopharaphrenia: Dissociation between first- and third-person perspectives on body ownership. Neuropsychologia, 49, 3946-3955</ref>
   
   
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{{enWP|Somatoparaphrenia}}

Latest revision as of 07:40, October 30, 2013

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Somatoparaphrenia is a type of monothematic delusion where one denies ownership of a limb or an entire side of one's body. Even if provided with undeniable proof that the limb belongs to and is attached to their own body, the patient produces elaborate confabulations about whose limb it really is, or how the limb ended up on their body.[1] [2] In some cases, delusions become so elaborate that a limb may be treated and cared for as if it were a separate being.[1]

Somatoparaphrenia differs from a similar disorder, asomatognosia, which is characterized as loss of recognition of half of the body or a limb, possibly due to paralysis or unilateral neglect.[3] Asomatognosic patients may, for example, mistake their arm for the doctor’s arm, however, can be shown their limb and this error is temporarily corrected.[1]

Somatoparaphrenia has been reported to occur predominately in the left arm of one's body,[4] and it is often accompanied by left-sided paralysis and anosognosia (denial or lack of awareness) of the paralysis. The link between Somatoparaphrenia and paralysis has been documented in many clinical cases [5] and the question arises as to whether or not paralysis, anosognosia or both are necessary for somatoparaphrenia to occur.

CausesEdit

It has been suggested that damage to the posterior cerebral regions (temporo-parietal junction) of the cortex may play a significant role in the development of Somatoparaphrenia.[6][7] However, more recent studies have suggested that damage to deep cortical regions such as the posterior insula [8] and subcortical structures such as the basal ganglia [9] may also play a significant role in the development of Somatoparaphrenia.

It is believed that this disorder is caused by parietal or biparietal strokes. [citation needed] Somatoparaphrenia has been associated more often with posterior damage of the cerebral regions, specifically the temporoparietal junction, typically seen on the right side.[3]

TreatmentEdit

One form of treatment that has produced a more integrated body awareness is mirror therapy, in which the individual who denies that the affected limb belongs to their body looks into a mirror at the limb. Patients looking into the mirror state that the limb does belong to them; however body ownership of the limb does not remain after the mirror is taken away.[10]


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=817

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