Socio-cognitive may relate to systems, processes, functions, models, as well as can indicate the branch of science, engineering or technology, such as socio-cognitive research, socio-cognitive interactions. This term is used when complex cognitive and social properties are reciprocally connected and essential for a given problem. The specificity of socio-cognitive approaches (proposed by Adam M.Gadomski in the TOGA meta-theory, 1993) relies on the assumption that every problem identification and solution always involve a model of human problem solver (such as designer, decision-maker, human organization) knowledge, mental possibilities and motivations, as well as mental ergonomic properties and social constrains of all humans which are either elements of the problem or are users of the problem solutions.

At the beginning, the term socio-cognitive engineering (SCE) denoted a set of theoretical frameworks, methodologies, methods and software tools for the design of human-centered technologies. New emergent systemic approach to SCE relates to human-based and intelligence-based socio-technological systems. It deals with the modeling of human organization vulnerabilities, organization crisis and their interdependences using general engineering paradims.

Both above approaches are applicable for the identification and design of a computer-based semi-/proto-Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS) for the operators and managers of large socially critical systems, for high-risk tasks, such as different types of emergency and disaster management, where human errors and lack of efficacy can be the cause of serious losses.

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