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{{SocPsy}}
 
{{SocPsy}}
'''Social security''' primarily refers to a field of [[social welfare]] concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. Although some publications use the terms "social security" and "social protection" interchangeably, social security is used both more narrowly (to refer only to schemes with the formal title of 'social security') and more widely (referring to many kinds of social welfare scheme). Social security may refer to
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{{PsyPerspective}}
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{{For2|specific national programs|[[Social Security (United States)]], [[National Insurance]] (UK), [[Social Security (Sweden)]], [[Social Security (Australia)]]}}
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'''Social security''' primarily refers to a [[social insurance]] program providing social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. Social security may refer to:
 
* '''social insurance''', where people receive benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance scheme. These services typically include provision for retirement [[pensions]], [[disability insurance]], [[survivor benefits]] and [[unemployment insurance]].
 
* '''social insurance''', where people receive benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance scheme. These services typically include provision for retirement [[pensions]], [[disability insurance]], [[survivor benefits]] and [[unemployment insurance]].
 
* '''income maintenance'''—mainly the distribution of cash in the event of interruption of employment, including retirement, disability and unemployment
 
* '''income maintenance'''—mainly the distribution of cash in the event of interruption of employment, including retirement, disability and unemployment
 
* '''services''' provided by administrations responsible for social security. In different countries this may include medical care, aspects of social work and even industrial relations.
 
* '''services''' provided by administrations responsible for social security. In different countries this may include medical care, aspects of social work and even industrial relations.
* More rarely, the term is also used to refer to '''basic security''', a term roughly equivalent to access to basic necessities—things such as [[food]], [[clothing]], [[shelter]], [[education]] and [[medicine|medical care]].
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* More rarely, the term is also used to refer to '''basic security''', a term roughly equivalent to access to basic necessities—things such as [[food]], [[clothing]], shelter, [[education]] and [[medicine|medical care]].
   
== Basic security ==
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== Social Insurance ==
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{{Main|Social insurance}}
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Actuaries define social insurance as a government-sponsored [[insurance]] program that is defined by statute, serves a defined population, and is funded through premiums or taxes paid by or on behalf of participants. Participation is either compulsory or the program is heavily enough subsidized that most eligible individuals choose to participate.
   
Social security is identified in the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights]] of [[1948]]:
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In the U.S., programs that meet this definition include [[Social Security (United States)|Social Security]], [[Medicare (United States)|Medicare]], the [[Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation|PBGC]] program, the [[Railroad Retirement Board|railroad retirement]] program and state-sponsored [[unemployment benefit#United States|unemployment insurance]] programs.<ref>[http://www.actuarialstandardsboard.org/pdf/asops/asop032_062.pdf "Social Insurance,"] Actuarial Standard of Practice No. 32, Actuarial Standards Board, January 1998</ref>
:"Art. 22—Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality."
 
 
The Wresinski report identifies lack of basic security as "the absence of one or more factors that enable individuals and families to assume basic responsibilities and to enjoy fundamental rights".
 
 
The concept, however, is much older than that. It was born in [[France]] during [[the Age of Enlightenment]], and figures in the [[Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen]] of [[1789]]:
 
:"Art. 2—The goal of any political association is the conservation of the natural and imprescriptible [i.e., inviolable] rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, '''safety''' and resistance against oppression."
 
 
== Social insurance ==
 
Before government-run social insurance programs were enacted, private groups had developed the concept of shared risk. In ancient Greece and Rome there were burial societies to which people contributed regularly to ensure that upon their deaths they would be buried with dignity. Some Medieval guilds had programs under which members contributed to funds which were drawn upon when members were no longer able to work, or died. In more recent times, some fraternal organizations and labor unions had similar programs. Many of the systems in continental Europe were developed, not through the state, but through occupational, mutualist and voluntary organisations.
 
 
The first state-run social insurance program paying retirement benefits was implemented in [[Germany]] in [[1889]] by Chancellor [[Otto von Bismarck]]. Bismarck sought to hold back the historical wave that was building in support of [[socialism]] across [[Europe]] at the time. His system was funded with [[payroll tax]]es paid by the employee and the employer, along with contributions from the government. It also included a [[disability]] benefit. Today such programs are common, though not universal, among [[developed countries]]. They often include features of the initial German system.
 
 
In the [[United Kingdom]] the first contributory pension scheme was enacted in 1911, enthusiastically supported by Winston Churchill who described the social insurance principle as "bringing the miracle of averages to the rescue of the millions". Subsequently, the [[Beveridge Report]] of [[1942]] offered the main alternative model. Beveridge attempted to make insurance the basis for a comprehensive, universal scheme covering all the main social needs. President Franklin Roosevelt described the ideal social insurance system as one which provided economic protection "from the cradle to the grave."
 
 
Social security is seen as providing assistance to retired workers, often in the form of a [[superannuation]] system that provides a pension from a fund to which workers and their employers (and in most countries the government) have contributed throughout their working lives. Workers may also contribute to some form of insurance scheme that provides income and assistance in the event of injury or illness for them and their families. While the scheme may be compulsory, the contributions or historic income often determine the level of support provided, once basic eligibility criteria such as age or inability to work are established. In most of the developed "first world" countries, social security also includes a system of [[universal health care]].
 
 
===Government pension expenses===
 
*As a [[%]] of [[GDP]] during 2000 ([http://www.ap2.se/ar/2003/eng/externskribentol/diagram/482x563_offentliga_utgifter.html]) ([http://www.ap2.se/ar/2003/eng/index.html])
 
*[[Economy of Italy|Italy]] 13%
 
*[[Economy of France|France]] 12%
 
*[[Economy of Germany|Germany]] 12%
 
*[[Economy of Sweden|Sweden]] 9%
 
*[[Economy of Japan|Japan]] 8%
 
*[[Economy of USA|USA]] 5%
 
*[[Economy of South Korea|South Korea]] 2%
 
*[[Economy of Hong Kong|Hong Kong]] 2%
 
   
 
== Income maintenance ==
 
== Income maintenance ==
   
Social security policy is usually applied through various programs designed to provide a population with income at times when they are unable to care for themselves. Income maintenance is based in a combination of five main types of program:
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This policy is usually applied through various programs designed to provide a population with income at times when they are unable to care for themselves. Income maintenance is based in a combination of five main types of program:
 
* '''social insurance''', considered above
 
* '''social insurance''', considered above
* '''means-tested''' benefits. This is financial assistance provided to those who have basic needs, such as food, clothing and housing, but are unable to afford those basic needs due to [[poverty]] or lack of income because of unemployment, sickness, disability, or caring for children. While assistance is often in the form of financial payments, those eligible for social welfare can usually access health and educational services free of charge. The amount of support is enough to cover basic needs and eligibility is often subject to a comprehensive and complex assessment of an applicant's social and financial situation.
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* '''means-tested''' benefits. This is financial assistance provided for those who are unable to cover basic needs, such as food, clothing and housing, due to [[poverty]] or lack of income because of unemployment, sickness, disability, or caring for children. While assistance is often in the form of financial payments, those eligible for social welfare can usually access health and educational services free of charge. The amount of support is enough to cover basic needs and eligibility is often subject to a comprehensive and complex assessment of an applicant's social and financial situation. See also, [[Income Support]].
 
* '''non-contributory''' benefits. Several countries have special schemes, administered with no requirement for contributions and no means test, for people in certain categories of need - for example, veterans of armed forces, people with disabilities and very old people.
 
* '''non-contributory''' benefits. Several countries have special schemes, administered with no requirement for contributions and no means test, for people in certain categories of need - for example, veterans of armed forces, people with disabilities and very old people.
* '''discretionary''' benefits. Some schemes are based on the discretion of an official, such as a social worker.
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* '''discretionary''' benefits. Some schemes are based on the discretion of an official, such as a social worker.
* '''universal''' or categorical benefits, also known as '''demogrants'''. These are non-contributory benefits given for whole sections of the population without a test of means or need, such as family allowances or the public pension in New Zealand (known as New Zealand Superannuation).
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* '''universal''' or categorical benefits, also known as '''demogrants'''. These are non-contributory benefits given for whole sections of the population without a test of means or need, such as family allowances or the public pension in New Zealand (known as New Zealand Superannuation). See also, [[Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend]].
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== Social Protection ==
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Social protection refers to a set of benefits available (or not available) from the state, market, civil society and households, or through a combination of these agencies, to the individual/households to reduce multi-dimensional [[deprivation]]. This multi-dimensional deprivation could be affecting less active poor persons (e.g. the elderly, disabled) and active [[poor]] persons (e.g. unemployed). This broad framework makes this concept more acceptable in developing countries than the concept of social security. Social security is more applicable in the conditions, where large numbers of citizens depend on the formal economy for their livelihood. Through a defined contribution, this social security may be managed. But, in the context of wide spread informal economy, formal social security arrangements are almost absent for the vast majority of the working population. Besides, in developing countries, the state's capacity to reach the vast majority of the poor people may be limited because of its limited resources. In such a context, multiple agencies that could provide for social protection is important for policy consideration. The framework of social protection is thus capable of holding the state responsible to provide for the poorest sections by regulating non-state agencies.
   
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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*[[Civil protection]]
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*[[Disability evaluation]]
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*[[Health care system]]
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*[[Human rights]]
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*[[Human security]]
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*[[International Social Security Association]]
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*[[Inter-generational contract]]
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*[[Medicaid]]
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*[[Medicare]]
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*[[National Health Service]]
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*[[Prevention]]
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*[[Publicly-funded health care]]
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*[[Social health insurance]]
 
*[[Social Security Administration]]
 
*[[Social Security Administration]]
 
*[[South African Social Security Agency]]
 
*[[South African Social Security Agency]]
*[[Social Security Disability Insurance]]
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*[[Social Security Disability Insurance]]
*[[Social Security number]]
 
 
*[[Social Security Trust Fund]]
 
*[[Social Security Trust Fund]]
*[[Social Security Act]] of 1935
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*[[Social Security Act]] of 1935
*[[Students for saving social security]]
 
*[[Health care system]]
 
*[[Human rights]]
 
*[[National Health Service]]
 
*[[Publicly-funded health care]]
 
*[[Civil protection]]
 
*[[Prevention]]
 
*[[Social health insurance]]
 
*[[Ponzi scheme]]
 
 
*[[Social Protection]]
 
*[[Social Protection]]
*[[Social Security situation in Africa]]
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*[[Social Security debate (United States)]]
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*[[Employees Provident Fund Organisation of India|Social Security in India]]
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*[[Social Security in France]]
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*[[Social policy]]
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*[[Social safety net]]
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*[[Social welfare provision]]
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*[[The Four Pillars]]
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*[[Welfare state]]
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*[[Welfare Rights]]
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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There is a piece of the Social Security code that enables people to stop and retsart their benefits at the higher level of 66-70 listed at http://www.knowledgestar.com/thefeaturedebook/readaboutthetruth.html
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==Literature==
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'''Very basic'''
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* ‘Reforming European Pension Systems’ ([[Arun Muralidhar]] and [[Serge Allegreza]] (Eds.)), Amsterdam, NL and West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Dutch University Press, Rozenberg Publishers and Purdue University Press
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'''Further reading'''
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* Modigliani, Franco. Rethinking pension reform / Franco Modigliani, Arun Muralidhar. Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
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* Muralidhar, Arun S. Innovations in pension fund management / Arun S. Muralidhar. Stanford, Calif. ; [Great Britain] : Stanford Economics + Finance, c2001.
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* ‘The Three Pillars of Wisdom? A Reader on Globalization, World Bank Pension Models and Welfare Society’ ([[Arno Tausch]], Editor). Nova Science Hauppauge, New York, 2003
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==External links==
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{{commonscat|Social security}}
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*[http://www.worldbank.org/sp Social Protection & Labor Program] of the [[World Bank]]
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*[http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/WBI/WBIPROGRAMS/SPLP/0,,menuPK:461694~pagePK:64156143~piPK:64154155~theSitePK:461654,00.html Social Protection Program] of the [[World Bank Institute]]
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*[http://www.odi.org.uk/socialprotection Social Protection research] from the [[Overseas Development Institute]]
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*[http://www.socialprotection.net Online guide to basic social protection concepts and issues]
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* Further resources on social protection (particularly in reference to developing countries) are available on the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre's [http://gsdrc.ids.ac.uk/go/topic-guides/social-protection topic guide on social protection]
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*[http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=976586 Arno Tausch (2005) ‚World Bank Pension reforms and development patterns in the world system and in the “Wider Europe”. A 109 country investigation based on 33 indicators of economic growth, and human, social and ecological well-being, and a European regional case study’. A slightly re-worked version of a paper, originally presented to the Conference on “Reforming European pension systems. In memory of Professor Franco Modigliani. 24 and 25 September 2004”, Castle of Schengen, Luxembourg Institute for European and International Studies]
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{{Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights}}i
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{{Particular human rights}}
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[[Category:Insurance]]
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[[Category:Retirement]]
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[[Category:Social systems]]
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[[Category:Social programs]]
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[[Category:Social security]]
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[[Category:Welfare state]]
 
[[Category:Welfare economics]]
 
[[Category:Welfare economics]]
[[Category:Social justice]]
 
   
:bg:Обществено осигуряване
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[[bg:Обществено осигуряване]]
 
[[ca:Seguretat Social]]
 
[[ca:Seguretat Social]]
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[[cs:Sociální zabezpečení]]
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[[da:Sociale ydelser]]
 
[[de:Soziale Sicherheit]]
 
[[de:Soziale Sicherheit]]
 
[[es:Seguridad social]]
 
[[es:Seguridad social]]
 
[[eo:Sociala sekureco]]
 
[[eo:Sociala sekureco]]
 
[[fr:Sécurité sociale]]
 
[[fr:Sécurité sociale]]
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[[ko:사회 보장]]
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[[it:Previdenza sociale]]
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[[he:ביטוח לאומי]]
 
[[nl:Sociale zekerheid]]
 
[[nl:Sociale zekerheid]]
 
[[ja:社会保障]]
 
[[ja:社会保障]]
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[[no:Trygd]]
 
[[pl:Pomoc społeczna]]
 
[[pl:Pomoc społeczna]]
 
[[pt:Previdência social]]
 
[[pt:Previdência social]]
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[[ru:Социальная защита]]
 
[[sr:Социјална сигурност]]
 
[[sr:Социјална сигурност]]
[[vi:Bảo hiểm xã hội]]
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[[fi:Sosiaaliturva]]
{{enWP|Soxcial security}}
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[[sv:Välfärd]]
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-->
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{{enWP|Social security}}

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Social security primarily refers to a social insurance program providing social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. Social security may refer to:

  • social insurance, where people receive benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance scheme. These services typically include provision for retirement pensions, disability insurance, survivor benefits and unemployment insurance.
  • income maintenance—mainly the distribution of cash in the event of interruption of employment, including retirement, disability and unemployment
  • services provided by administrations responsible for social security. In different countries this may include medical care, aspects of social work and even industrial relations.
  • More rarely, the term is also used to refer to basic security, a term roughly equivalent to access to basic necessities—things such as food, clothing, shelter, education and medical care.

Social Insurance Edit

Main article: Social insurance

Actuaries define social insurance as a government-sponsored insurance program that is defined by statute, serves a defined population, and is funded through premiums or taxes paid by or on behalf of participants. Participation is either compulsory or the program is heavily enough subsidized that most eligible individuals choose to participate.

In the U.S., programs that meet this definition include Social Security, Medicare, the PBGC program, the railroad retirement program and state-sponsored unemployment insurance programs.[1]

Income maintenance Edit

This policy is usually applied through various programs designed to provide a population with income at times when they are unable to care for themselves. Income maintenance is based in a combination of five main types of program:

  • social insurance, considered above
  • means-tested benefits. This is financial assistance provided for those who are unable to cover basic needs, such as food, clothing and housing, due to poverty or lack of income because of unemployment, sickness, disability, or caring for children. While assistance is often in the form of financial payments, those eligible for social welfare can usually access health and educational services free of charge. The amount of support is enough to cover basic needs and eligibility is often subject to a comprehensive and complex assessment of an applicant's social and financial situation. See also, Income Support.
  • non-contributory benefits. Several countries have special schemes, administered with no requirement for contributions and no means test, for people in certain categories of need - for example, veterans of armed forces, people with disabilities and very old people.
  • discretionary benefits. Some schemes are based on the discretion of an official, such as a social worker.
  • universal or categorical benefits, also known as demogrants. These are non-contributory benefits given for whole sections of the population without a test of means or need, such as family allowances or the public pension in New Zealand (known as New Zealand Superannuation). See also, Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend.

Social Protection Edit

Social protection refers to a set of benefits available (or not available) from the state, market, civil society and households, or through a combination of these agencies, to the individual/households to reduce multi-dimensional deprivation. This multi-dimensional deprivation could be affecting less active poor persons (e.g. the elderly, disabled) and active poor persons (e.g. unemployed). This broad framework makes this concept more acceptable in developing countries than the concept of social security. Social security is more applicable in the conditions, where large numbers of citizens depend on the formal economy for their livelihood. Through a defined contribution, this social security may be managed. But, in the context of wide spread informal economy, formal social security arrangements are almost absent for the vast majority of the working population. Besides, in developing countries, the state's capacity to reach the vast majority of the poor people may be limited because of its limited resources. In such a context, multiple agencies that could provide for social protection is important for policy consideration. The framework of social protection is thus capable of holding the state responsible to provide for the poorest sections by regulating non-state agencies.

See also Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Social Insurance," Actuarial Standard of Practice No. 32, Actuarial Standards Board, January 1998

There is a piece of the Social Security code that enables people to stop and retsart their benefits at the higher level of 66-70 listed at http://www.knowledgestar.com/thefeaturedebook/readaboutthetruth.html

LiteratureEdit

Very basic

  • ‘Reforming European Pension Systems’ (Arun Muralidhar and Serge Allegreza (Eds.)), Amsterdam, NL and West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Dutch University Press, Rozenberg Publishers and Purdue University Press

Further reading

  • Modigliani, Franco. Rethinking pension reform / Franco Modigliani, Arun Muralidhar. Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Muralidhar, Arun S. Innovations in pension fund management / Arun S. Muralidhar. Stanford, Calif. ; [Great Britain] : Stanford Economics + Finance, c2001.
  • ‘The Three Pillars of Wisdom? A Reader on Globalization, World Bank Pension Models and Welfare Society’ (Arno Tausch, Editor). Nova Science Hauppauge, New York, 2003

External linksEdit

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