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(New page: {{BioPsy}} {{Infobox Anatomy | Name = Skene's gland | Latin = | GraySubject = 252 | GrayPage = 1213 | Image = Skenes_gland.jpg | Caption = Skene'...)
 
 
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| DorlandsID = Paraurethral glands
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| DorlandsSuf = 12391811
 
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In [[human anatomy]] (female), the '''Skene's glands''' (also known as the '''lesser vestibular''', '''periurethral glands''', '''skene glands''', '''paraurethral glands''',<ref>{{DorlandsDict|nine/20823231|paraurethral glands}}</ref> '''U-spot''', or '''female [[prostate]]''') are [[glands]] located on the anterior wall of the [[vagina]], around the lower end of the [[urethra]]. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening. These glands are surrounded with tissue, which includes the part of the [[clitoris]] that reaches up inside the vagina and swells with [[blood]] during [[sexual arousal]].
+
In [[human anatomy]] (female), the '''Skene's glands''' (also known as the '''lesser vestibular''', '''periurethral glands''', '''paraurethral glands''',<ref>{{Dorlands|g_06|12391811|paraurethral glands}}</ref> or '''female [[prostate]]''') are [[glands]] located on the forward wall of the [[vagina]], around the lower end of the [[urethra]]. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening. These glands are surrounded with tissue, which includes the part of the [[clitoris]] that reaches up inside the vagina and swells with [[blood]] during [[sexual arousal]].
  +
  +
===Relation with orgasm===
  +
There is some evidence that [[nerve]]s in this area produce an [[orgasm]] different from the one produced by [[clitoris|clitoral]] [[stimulation]].{{Fact|date=June 2007}}
   
 
==Homology and possible functions==
 
==Homology and possible functions==
The location of the Skene's gland is the general area of the [[urethral sponge]]. The Skene's glands are [[homology (biology)|homologous]] with the [[prostate gland]] in males.<ref>{{cite journal | author = Zaviacic M, Jakubovská V, Belosovic M, Breza J | title = Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland) | journal = Anat Embryol (Berl) | volume = 201 | issue = 1 | pages = 51–61 | year = 2000 | pmid = 10603093}}</ref>
+
The location of the Skene's gland is the general area of the [[urethral sponge]]. The Skene's glands are [[homology (biology)|homologous]] with the [[prostate gland]] in males.<ref>{{cite journal | author = Zaviacic M, Jakubovská V, Belosovic M, Breza J | title = Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland). | journal = Anat Embryol (Berl) | volume = 201 | issue = 1 | pages = 51-61 | year = 2000 | id = PMID 10603093}}</ref>
   
 
===Female ejaculation===
 
===Female ejaculation===
 
{{main|Female ejaculation}}
 
{{main|Female ejaculation}}
Some believe that the Skene's glands are the source of [[female ejaculation]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Rabinerson D, Horowitz E |title=[G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality?] |language=Hebrew |journal=Harefuah |volume=146 |issue=2 |pages=145–7, 163 |year=2007 |month=February |pmid=17352286 |doi= |url=}}</ref> In 2002, [[Emanuele Jannini]] of [[L'Aquila University]] in Italy showed that there may be an explanation both for the phenomenon and for the frequent denials of its existence. Skene's glands have highly variable anatomy, and in some extreme cases they appear to be missing entirely. If Skene's glands are the cause of female ejaculation and [[G-spot]]-orgasms, this may explain the observed absence of these phenomena in many women.{{Fact|date=August 2008}}
+
Some believe that the Skene's glands are the source of [[female ejaculation]].<ref>{{cite journal
<ref>{{cite journal | author = Jannini E, Simonelli C, Lenzi A | title = Sexological approach to ejaculatory dysfunction | journal = Int J Androl | volume = 25 | issue = 6 | pages = 317–23 | year = 2002 | pmid = 12406363 | doi = 10.1046/j.1365-2605.2002.00371.x}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | author = Jannini E, Simonelli C, Lenzi A | title = Disorders of ejaculation | journal = J Endocrinol Invest | volume = 25 | issue = 11 | pages = 1006–19 | year = 2002 | pmid = 12553564}}</ref>
+
|first=D |last=Rabinerson |coauthors=E Horowitz. |year=2007 |month=February |title=G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality? |journal=Harefuah. |volume=146 |issue=2 |pages=145-7, 163 |pmid=17352286
  +
|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17352286&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus
  +
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref> In [[2002]], [[Emanuele Jannini]] of [[L'Aquila University]] in Italy showed that there may be an explanation both for the phenomenon and for the frequent denials of its existence. Skene's glands have highly variable anatomy, and in some extreme cases they appear to be missing entirely. If Skene's glands are the cause of female ejaculation and [[G-spot]]-orgasms, this may explain the observed absence of these phenomena in many women.<ref>{{cite journal | author = Jannini E, Simonelli C, Lenzi A | title = Sexological approach to ejaculatory dysfunction. | journal = Int J Androl | volume = 25 | issue = 6 | pages = 317-23 | year = 2002 | id = PMID 12406363}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | author = Jannini E, Simonelli C, Lenzi A | title = Disorders of ejaculation. | journal = J Endocrinol Invest | volume = 25 | issue = 11 | pages = 1006-19 | year = 2002 | id = PMID 12553564}}</ref>
  +
  +
{{Sex organs}}
   
It has been demonstrated that a large amount of lubricating fluid (filtered blood plasma) can be secreted from this gland when stimulated from inside the vagina.
 
{{sex organs}}
 
 
===Female prostate===
 
===Female prostate===
The fluid that emerges during [[female ejaculation]] has a composition similar to the fluid generated in males by the [[prostate]] gland,<ref>{{cite journal | author = Kratochvíl S | title = Orgasmic expulsions in women | journal = Cesk Psychiatr | volume = 90 | issue = 2 | pages = 71–7 | year = 1994 | pmid = 8004685}}</ref> containing biochemical markers of sexual function like human [[protein]] 1<ref>{{cite journal
+
The fluid that emerges during [[female ejaculation]] has a composition similar to the fluid generated in males by the [[prostate]] gland,<ref>{{cite journal | author = Kratochvíl S | title = Orgasmic expulsions in women | journal = Cesk Psychiatr | volume = 90 | issue = 2 | pages = 71-7 | year = 1994 | id = PMID 8004685}}</ref> containing biochemical markers of sexual function like Human Protein 1<ref>{{cite journal
 
|first=M|last=Zaviacic|coauthors=L Danihel, M Ruzicková, J Blazeková, Y Itoh, R Okutani, T Kawai.|year=1997|month=March
 
|first=M|last=Zaviacic|coauthors=L Danihel, M Ruzicková, J Blazeková, Y Itoh, R Okutani, T Kawai.|year=1997|month=March
|title=Immunohistochemical localization of human protein 1 in the female prostate (Skene's gland) and the male prostate
+
|title=Immunohistochemical localization of human protein 1 in the female prostate (Skene's gland) and the male prostate.
|journal=Histochem J.|volume=29|issue=3|pages=219–27|pmid=9472384
+
|journal=Histochem J.|volume=29|issue=3|pages=219-27|pmid=9472384
|url=
+
|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=9472384&ordinalpos=18&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
|accessdate=2007-06-22
+
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref> and the enzyme [[CGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5|PDE5]]. When examined with electron microscopy, both glands show similar secretory structures,<ref>{{cite journal
|doi=10.1023/A:1026401909678}}</ref> and the enzyme [[CGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5|PDE5]]. When examined with electron microscopy, both glands show similar secretory structures,<ref>{{cite journal
 
 
|first=Z |last=Zaviacic |coauthors=V Jakubovská, M Belosovic, J Breza. |year=2000 |month=January
 
|first=Z |last=Zaviacic |coauthors=V Jakubovská, M Belosovic, J Breza. |year=2000 |month=January
|title=Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland) |journal=Anat Embryol (Berl). |volume=201 |issue=1 |pages=51–61 |pmid=10603093
+
|title=Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland). |journal=Anat Embryol (Berl). |volume=201 |issue=1 |pages=51-61 |pmid=10603093
|url=http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00429/bibs/0201001/02010051.htm
+
|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=10603093&ordinalpos=13&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref> and both act similarly in terms of prostate-specific [[antigen]] and prostate-specific [[acid phosphatase]] studies.<ref>{{cite journal
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref> and both act similarly in terms of prostate-specific [[antigen]] and prostate-specific [[acid phosphatase]] studies.<ref>{{cite journal
|first=Z|last=Zaviacic|coauthors=M Ruzicková, J Jakubovský, L Danihel, P Babál, J Blazeková.|year=1994|month=November |title=The significance of prostate markers in the orthology of the female prostate
+
|first=Z|last=Zaviacic|coauthors=M Ruzicková, J Jakubovský, L Danihel, P Babál, J Blazeková.|year=1994|month=November|title=The significance of prostate markers in the orthology of the female prostate
|journal=Bratisl Lek Listy.|volume=95|issue=11|pages=491–7|pmid=7533639
+
|journal=Bratisl Lek Listy.|volume=95|issue=11|pages=491-7|pmid=7533639
|url=
+
|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=7533639&ordinalpos=22&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal
 
|first=N|last=Wernert|coauthors=M Albrech, I Sesterhenn, R Goebbels, H Bonkhoff, G Seitz, R Inniger, K Remberger.|year=1992|month=
 
|first=N|last=Wernert|coauthors=M Albrech, I Sesterhenn, R Goebbels, H Bonkhoff, G Seitz, R Inniger, K Remberger.|year=1992|month=
|title=The 'female prostate': location, morphology, immunohistochemical characteristics and significance
+
|title=The 'female prostate': location, morphology, immunohistochemical characteristics and significance.
|journal=Eur Urol.|volume=22|issue=1|pages=64–9|pmid=1385145
+
|journal=Eur Urol.|volume=22|issue=1|pages=64-9|pmid=1385145
|url=
+
|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=1385145&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal
 
|first=SL|last=Tepper|coauthors=J Jagirdar, D Heath, SA Geller.|year=1984|month=May
 
|first=SL|last=Tepper|coauthors=J Jagirdar, D Heath, SA Geller.|year=1984|month=May
|title=Homology between the female paraurethral (Skene's) glands and the prostate. Immunohistochemical demonstration
+
|title=Homology between the female paraurethral (Skene's) glands and the prostate. Immunohistochemical demonstration.
|journal=Arch Pathol Lab Med.|volume=108|issue=5|pages=423–5|pmid=6546868
+
|journal=Arch Pathol Lab Med.|volume=108|issue=5|pages=423-5|pmid=6546868
|url=
+
|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=6546868&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal
 
|last=Pollen|first=JJ|coauthors=A. Dreilinger|year=1984|month=March
 
|last=Pollen|first=JJ|coauthors=A. Dreilinger|year=1984|month=March
|title=Immunohistochemical identification of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen in female periurethral glands
+
|title=Immunohistochemical identification of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen in female periurethral glands.
|journal=Urology.|volume=23|issue=3|pages=303–4|pmid=6199882
+
|journal=Urology.|volume=23|issue=3|pages=303-4|pmid=6199882
|url=
+
|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=6199882&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus
|accessdate=2007-06-22
+
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref> Because they are increasingly perceived as merely different versions of the same gland, some researchers are moving away from the name ''Skene's gland'' and referring to it instead as the '''female prostate.'''<ref>{{cite journal
|doi=10.1016/S0090-4295(84)90053-0}}</ref> Because they are increasingly perceived as merely different versions of the same gland, some researchers are moving away from the name ''Skene's gland'' and referring to it instead as the '''female prostate.'''<ref>{{cite journal
 
 
|first=Z |last=Zaviacic |coauthors=RJ Ablin. |year=2000 |month=January
 
|first=Z |last=Zaviacic |coauthors=RJ Ablin. |year=2000 |month=January
|title=The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications of this prostate marker in women and reasons for using the term "prostate" in the human female
+
|title=The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications of this prostate marker in women and reasons for using the term "prostate" in the human female.
 
|journal=Histol Histopathol.
 
|journal=Histol Histopathol.
|volume=15 |issue=1 |pages=131–42 |pmid=10668204 |url=
+
|volume=15 |issue=1 |pages=131-42 |pmid=10668204 |url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=10668204&ordinalpos=11&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref>
 
|accessdate=2007-06-22}}</ref>
   
 
==Eponym==
 
==Eponym==
The glands were named after the [[physician]] who described them first in [[Western medicine|Western medical]] literature, [[Elexander Skene]].<ref>{{WhoNamedIt|synd|2038|Skene's glands}}</ref>
+
The glands were named after the [[physician]] who described them first in [[Western medicine|Western medical]] literature, [[Alexander Skene]].<ref>{{WhoNamedIt|synd|2038|Skene's glands}}</ref>
<ref>
+
{{cite journal |author=Skene A |title=The anatomy and pathology of two important glands of the female urethra |journal=Am J Obs Dis Women Child |volume=13 |issue= |pages=265–70 |year=1880}}
+
==Criticism==
</ref>
+
Many scientists believe that the Skene's gland does not exist at all and that females actually squirt from the urethra. Other scientists believe that only a few women have the Skene's gland and thus capable of squirting. {{fact}}
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
  +
* [[Orgasm#In female humans|Vaginal orgasm]]
  +
* [[Pudendal nerve]]
 
* [[Bartholin's gland]]
 
* [[Bartholin's gland]]
* [[List of homologues of the human reproductive system]]
 
* [[Pudendal nerve]]
 
* [[Orgasm#In female humans|Vaginal orgasm]]
 
* [[Female ejaculation]]
 
 
* [[Wolffian duct]]
 
* [[Wolffian duct]]
  +
* [[List of homologues of the human reproductive system]]
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
Line 88: Line 85:
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
* [http://www.incontinet.com/skenesgland.htm The paraurethral glands in scientific literature]
 
* [http://www.incontinet.com/skenesgland.htm The paraurethral glands in scientific literature]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2090434.stm BBC 2002]
+
* [http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99992495 New Scientist story]
*{{cite web |author=Jones N |url=http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99992495 |title=Bigger is better when it comes to the G spot |date=3 July 2002 |format= |work=New Scientist |accessdate=}}
 
*{{cite web |author=Geddes L |url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19726444.100-ultrasound-nails-location-of-the-elusive-g-spot.html |title=Ultrasound nails location of the elusive G spot |date=20 February 2008 |format= |work=New Scientist |accessdate=}}
 
**{{cite journal |author=Gravina GL, Brandetti F, Martini P, ''et al'' |title=Measurement of the thickness of the urethrovaginal space in women with or without vaginal orgasm |journal=J Sex Med |volume=5 |issue=3 |pages=610–8 |year=2008 |month=March |pmid=18221286 |doi=10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00739.x |url=}}
 
* [http://www.latimes.com/features/printedition/health/la-he-mating21-2008jul21,0,1263750.story LA Times 2008]
 
 
* [http://www.sexuality.org/mvgstim.html Sexuality.org G-spot information page]
 
* [http://www.sexuality.org/mvgstim.html Sexuality.org G-spot information page]
  +
* [http://www.orgasms.co.nr Orgasm and Sex]
   
 
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[[zh:斯基恩氏腺]]
 
[[zh:斯基恩氏腺]]
 
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{{EnWP|Skene's gland}}
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{{enWP|Skene's gland}}

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Skene's gland
Skene's Gland
Latin '
Gray's subject #252 1213
System
MeSH [1]
Female anatomy
Human female internal reproductive anatomy. (Skene's gland not labeled, but region is visible.)

In human anatomy (female), the Skene's glands (also known as the lesser vestibular, periurethral glands, paraurethral glands,[1] or female prostate) are glands located on the forward wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening. These glands are surrounded with tissue, which includes the part of the clitoris that reaches up inside the vagina and swells with blood during sexual arousal.

Relation with orgasmEdit

There is some evidence that nerves in this area produce an orgasm different from the one produced by clitoral stimulation.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Homology and possible functionsEdit

The location of the Skene's gland is the general area of the urethral sponge. The Skene's glands are homologous with the prostate gland in males.[2]

Female ejaculationEdit

Main article: Female ejaculation

Some believe that the Skene's glands are the source of female ejaculation.[3] In 2002, Emanuele Jannini of L'Aquila University in Italy showed that there may be an explanation both for the phenomenon and for the frequent denials of its existence. Skene's glands have highly variable anatomy, and in some extreme cases they appear to be missing entirely. If Skene's glands are the cause of female ejaculation and G-spot-orgasms, this may explain the observed absence of these phenomena in many women.[4][5]

Female prostateEdit

The fluid that emerges during female ejaculation has a composition similar to the fluid generated in males by the prostate gland,[6] containing biochemical markers of sexual function like Human Protein 1[7] and the enzyme PDE5. When examined with electron microscopy, both glands show similar secretory structures,[8] and both act similarly in terms of prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific acid phosphatase studies.[9][10][11][12] Because they are increasingly perceived as merely different versions of the same gland, some researchers are moving away from the name Skene's gland and referring to it instead as the female prostate.[13]

EponymEdit

The glands were named after the physician who described them first in Western medical literature, Alexander Skene.[14]

CriticismEdit

Many scientists believe that the Skene's gland does not exist at all and that females actually squirt from the urethra. Other scientists believe that only a few women have the Skene's gland and thus capable of squirting. [How to reference and link to summary or text]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Dorlands/Elsevier g_06/12391811
  2. Zaviacic M, Jakubovská V, Belosovic M, Breza J (2000). Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland).. Anat Embryol (Berl) 201 (1): 51-61. PMID 10603093.
  3. Rabinerson, D, E Horowitz. (February 2007). G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality?. Harefuah. 146 (2): 145-7, 163.
  4. Jannini E, Simonelli C, Lenzi A (2002). Sexological approach to ejaculatory dysfunction.. Int J Androl 25 (6): 317-23. PMID 12406363.
  5. Jannini E, Simonelli C, Lenzi A (2002). Disorders of ejaculation.. J Endocrinol Invest 25 (11): 1006-19. PMID 12553564.
  6. Kratochvíl S (1994). Orgasmic expulsions in women. Cesk Psychiatr 90 (2): 71-7. PMID 8004685.
  7. Zaviacic, M, L Danihel, M Ruzicková, J Blazeková, Y Itoh, R Okutani, T Kawai. (March 1997). Immunohistochemical localization of human protein 1 in the female prostate (Skene's gland) and the male prostate.. Histochem J. 29 (3): 219-27.
  8. Zaviacic, Z, V Jakubovská, M Belosovic, J Breza. (January 2000). Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland).. Anat Embryol (Berl). 201 (1): 51-61.
  9. Zaviacic, Z, M Ruzicková, J Jakubovský, L Danihel, P Babál, J Blazeková. (November 1994). The significance of prostate markers in the orthology of the female prostate. Bratisl Lek Listy. 95 (11): 491-7.
  10. Wernert, N, M Albrech, I Sesterhenn, R Goebbels, H Bonkhoff, G Seitz, R Inniger, K Remberger. (1992). The 'female prostate': location, morphology, immunohistochemical characteristics and significance.. Eur Urol. 22 (1): 64-9.
  11. Tepper, SL, J Jagirdar, D Heath, SA Geller. (May 1984). Homology between the female paraurethral (Skene's) glands and the prostate. Immunohistochemical demonstration.. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 108 (5): 423-5.
  12. Pollen, JJ, A. Dreilinger (March 1984). Immunohistochemical identification of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen in female periurethral glands.. Urology. 23 (3): 303-4.
  13. Zaviacic, Z, RJ Ablin. (January 2000). The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications of this prostate marker in women and reasons for using the term "prostate" in the human female.. Histol Histopathol. 15 (1): 131-42.
  14. Who Named It synd/2038

External linksEdit


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