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A shuttle box is a piece of apparatus used in animal learning experiments. The box is divided into two halves and the animal must move from one compartment to the other in order to gain their reward or to avoid an adversive stimulus.

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

Abramson, C. I., Miler, J., & Mann, D. W. (1982). An olfactory shuttle box and runway for insects: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 3(2) Spr 1982, 151-159.

  • Aguilar, R., Gil, L., Fernandez-Teruel, A., & Tobena, A. (2004). Genetically-based behavioral traits influence the effects of Shuttle Box avoidance overtraining and extinction upon intertrial responding: A study with the Roman rat strains: Behavioural Processes Vol 66(1) Apr 2004, 63-72.
  • Ashton, G. R., & Croucher, D. J. (1976). Electronic circuit for controlling a shuttle box behavioral experiment: Physiology & Behavior Vol 16(5) May 1976, 653-655.
  • Atrens, D. M., Becker, F. T., & Hunt, G. E. (1980). Apomorphine: Selective inhibition of the aversive component of lateral hypothalamic self-stimulation: Psychopharmacology Vol 71(1) Nov 1980, 97-99.
  • Bachmanov, A. A., & Dmitriev, Y. S. (1992). Properties of learning of shuttle avoidance of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 42(1) Jan-Feb 1992, 152-156.
  • Biederman, G. B., & Furedy, J. J. (1976). The preference-for-signaled-shock phenomenon: Fify days with scrambled shock in the shuttelbox: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 7(2) Feb 1976, 129-132.
  • Bignami, G., Alleva, E., Amorico, L., de Aietis, L., & et al. (1985). Bidirectional avoidance by mice as a function of CS, US, and apparatus variables: Animal Learning & Behavior Vol 13(4) Nov 1985, 439-450.
  • Bischof, A., Stark, H., Blumenstein, R., Wagner, T., Brechmann, A., & Scheich, H. (2001). A semiautomatic method for adding behavioral data to videotape records in combination with the Noldus Observer system: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers Vol 33(4) Nov 2001, 549-555.
  • Blatt, R. C. (1976). Facilitation and nonfacilitation of active avoidance behavior of rats with septal lesions in the shuttle box and running wheel: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 90(7) Jul 1976, 704-713.
  • Bozarth, M. A. (1983). A computer approach to measuring shuttle box activity and conditioned place preference: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 11(6) Dec 1983, 751-753.
  • Brown, P. L., Hurley, C., Repucci, N., & Drugan, R. C. (2001). Behavioral analysis of stress controllability effects in a new swim stress paradigm: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 68(2) Feb 2001, 263-272.
  • Buselmaier, W., Vierling, T., Balzereit, W., & Schwegler, H. (1981). Genetic analysis of avoidance learning by means of different psychological testing systems with inbred mice as model organisms: Psychological Research Vol 43(3) Nov 1981, 317-333.
  • Caul, W. F., & Barrett, R. J. (1973). Shuttle-box versus -maze avoidance: Value of multiple response measures in interpreting active-avoidance performance of rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 84(3) Sep 1973, 572-578.
  • Clark, M. G., Vasilevsky, S., & Myers, T. M. (2003). Air and shock two-way shuttlebox avoidance in C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ mice: Physiology & Behavior Vol 78(1) Jan 2003, 117-123.
  • Coover, G. D., & Ursin, H. (1973). Plasma-corticosterone levels during active-avoidance learning in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 82(1) Jan 1973, 170-174.
  • Cotton, M. M., & Wood, W. P. (1982). Rapidly developed scalar timing in unsignalled shuttlebox avoidance learning: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B: Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 34B(4) Nov 1982, 209-219.
  • Davis, G. W. (2000). An analysis of behavioral strategies used for recovery of function on the foot-fault grid task following sensorimotor cortex lesions in rats. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • de Kloet, E. R., & et al. (1983). Pituitary stalk section transiently impairs the acquisition of shuttle box avoidance behavior: Physiology & Behavior Vol 30(4) Apr 1983, 499-502.
  • Escorihuela, R. M., Fernandez-Teruel, A., Gil, L., Aguilar, R., Tobena, A., & Driscoll, P. (1999). Inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats: Differences in anxiety, novelty-seeking and shuttlebox behaviors: Physiology & Behavior Vol 67(1) Aug 1999, 19-26.
  • Etscorn, F. (1974). A home tank aquatic shuttlebox: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 6(1) Jan 1974, 77.
  • Everss, E., & Parra, A. (1998). Inhibitory avoidance with a two-way shuttle-box: Psicothema Vol 10(2) Jul 1998, 387-391.
  • Fernandez-Teruel, A., Escorihuela, R. M., Nunez, J. F., Zapata, A., & et al. (1991). The early acquisition of two-way (shuttle-box) avoidance as an anxiety-mediated behavior: Psychopharmacological validation: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 26(1) Jan 1991, 173-176.
  • Freedman, P. E. (1990). A computer analog of shuttlebox avoidance by human subjects: Journal of General Psychology Vol 117(2) Apr 1990, 203-213.
  • Furedy, J. J., & Biederman, G. B. (1976). Preference for signaled shock phenomenon: Direct and indirect evidence for modifiability factors in the shuttlebox: Animal Learning & Behavior Vol 4(1-A) Feb 1976, 1-5.
  • Gallon, R. (1972). Effects of shock intensity on shuttlebox avoidance conditioning in goldfish: Psychological Reports Vol 31(3) Dec 1972, 855-858.
  • Gallon, R. L. (1972). Effects of pretraining with fear and escape conditioning on shuttlebox avoidance acquisition by goldfish: Psychological Reports Vol 31(3) Dec 1972, 919-924.
  • Graefe, J., & Pisacreta, R. (1977). An integrated circuit shock scrambler: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 9(6) Dec 1977, 499-500.
  • Gralewicz, S. (1976). Electrical stimulation of the hippocampus and acquisition of the conditioned avoidance response in shuttle-box in cats: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis Vol 36(6) 1976, 639-654.
  • Hazel, J. S. (1978). Pavlovian-instrumental interactions and avoidance learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Heightington, G. A., & Biederman, G. B. (1977). Automation of mazes and shuttleboxes: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 9(6) Dec 1977, 567-568.
  • Hineline, P. N., & Alloy, L. B. (1978). Warm-up effects in free-operant avoidance in a shuttlebox: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 12(6) Dec 1978, 447-450.
  • Izquierdo, I., Salzano, F., Thome, F. S., & Thaddeu, R. (1975). Shuttle behavior in weanling and in adult rats: Behavioral Biology Vol 14(3) Jul 1975, 361-366.
  • Izquierdo, I., & Thaddeu, R. (1975). The effect of adrenaline, tyramine and guanethidine on two-way avoidance conditioning and on pseudoconditioning: Psychopharmacologia Vol 43(1) 1975, 85-87.
  • Katzev, R. (1972). What is both necessary and sufficient to maintain avoidance responding in the shuttle box? : The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 24(3) Aug 1972, 310-317.
  • Kazdova, E., & Dlabac, A. (1975). Our experience with the method of shuttle-box in the evaluation of psychotropic drugs: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 17(4) 1975, 284-285.
  • Knoll, J., Miklya, I., Knoll, B., Yasusa, T., Shimazu, S., & Yoneda, F. (2002). 1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)aminopentane HCl, 3-F-BPAP, antagonizes the enhancer effect of (-)-BPAP in the shuttle box and leaves the effect of (-)-deprenyl unchanged: Life Sciences Vol 71(17) Sep 2002, 1975-1984.
  • Levis, D. J., & Dubin, W. J. (1973). Some parameters affecting shuttle-box avoidance responding with rats receiving serially presented conditioned stimuli: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 82(2) Feb 1973, 328-344.
  • Levis, D. J., Dubin, W. J., & Holzman, A. D. (1978). Effects of component training and subsequent sequencing of stimuli on shuttlebox avoidance responding of rats: Animal Learning & Behavior Vol 6(3) Aug 1978, 335-340.
  • Levitt, R. A., Stilwell, D. J., & Evers, T. M. (1978). Morphine and shuttlebox self-stimulation in the rat: Tolerance studies: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 9(4) Oct 1978, 567-569.
  • Loizzo, A., Palazzesi, S., Loizzo, S., Battaglia, M., & et al. (1996). Effects of low doses of physostigmine on avoidance learning and EEG in two strains of mice: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 81(1-2) Dec 1996, 155-161.
  • Moot, S. A., Nelson, K., & Bolles, R. C. (1974). Avoidance learning in a black and white shuttlebox: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 4(5-B) Nov 1974, 501-502.
  • Moragrega, I., Carrasco, M. C., & Redolat, R. (2005). Effects of housing and nicotine on shuttle-box avoidance in male NMRI mice: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 164(2) Nov 2005, 178-187.
  • Myers, T. M., Cohn, S. I., & Clark, M. G. (2005). Acquisition and performance of two-way shuttlebox avoidance: Effects of aversive air intensity: Learning and Motivation Vol 36(3) Aug 2005, 312-321.
  • Nakao, M. (2001). Examination of latent inhibition using shuttle-box avoidance task in rats: Japanese Journal of Animal Psychology Vol 51(2) Dec 2001, 55-59.
  • Ohta, R., Matsumoto, A., Hashimoto, Y., Nagao, T., & Mizutani, M. (1997). Behavioral characteristics of micrencephalic rats in high and low shuttlebox avoidance lines: Neurotoxicology and Teratology Vol 19(2) Mar-Apr 1997, 157-162.
  • Oliverio, A., Castellano, C., & Messeri, P. (1973). Genotype-dependent effects of septal lesions on different types of learning in the mouse: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 82(2) Feb 1973, 240-246.
  • Peeler, D. F. (1995). Shuttlebox performance in BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6ByJ, and CXB recombinant inbred mice: Environmental and genetic determinants and constraints: Psychobiology Vol 23(2) Jun 1995, 161-170.
  • Rakover, S. S. (1979). Fish (Tilapia aurea), as rats, learn shuttle better than lever-bumping (press) avoidance tasks: A suggestion for functionally similar universal reactions to a conditioned fear-arousing stimulus: American Journal of Psychology Vol 92(3) Sep 1979, 489-495.
  • Riess, D., & Farrar, C. H. (1972). Unsignalled avoidance in a shuttlebox: A rapid acquisition, high efficiency paradigm: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 18(1) Jul 1972, 169-178.
  • Roberts, A. E. (1986). The shuttle-avoidance response chains of rats: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 24(2) Mar 1986, 163-165.
  • Rush, D. K. (1982). A two-way shuttlebox for testing nonhuman primates: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 14(1) Feb 1982, 16-18.
  • Sanavio, E., & Savardi, U. (1979). Observational learning of a discriminative shuttlebox avoidance by rats: Psychological Reports Vol 44(3, Pt 2) Jun 1979, 1151-1154.
  • Schleidt, W. M., & Kickert-Magg, M. (1979). Hearing thresholds of albino house mouse between 1 and 80 kHz by shuttle box training: Journal of Auditory Research Vol 19(1) Jan 1979, 37-40.
  • Sears, R. J. (1978). An automated runway: Responding without postreinforcement goal tracking: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 10(3) Jun 1978, 404-408.
  • Simon, V. (1981). A new apparatus for the study of avoidance conditioning in fishes: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 13(1) Feb 1981, 70-72.
  • Smith, R. H. (1978). Selection for shuttle avoidance in wild Mus musculus: Behavior Genetics Vol 8(3) May 1978, 269-274.
  • Stark, H., Bischof, A., Wagner, T., & Scheich, H. (2001). Activation of the dopaminergic system of medial prefrontal cortex of gerbils during formation of relevant associations for the avoidance strategy in the shuttle-box: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 25(2) Feb 2001, 409-426.
  • Thompson, P. A., & Boice, R. (1975). Attempts to train frogs: Review and experiments: Journal of Biological Psychology Vol 17(1) Jul 1975, 3-13.
  • Van der Kooy, D., & Phillips, A. G. (1978). Relationship of grooming and rearing to reinforcing stimulation of lateral hypothalamus in rats: Physiological Psychology Vol 6(2) Jun 1978, 199-203.
  • Vinader-Caerols, C., Aguilar, M. A., Perez-Iranzzo, N., & Parra, M. J. (1996). Apparent vs real effects of scopolmine on the learning of an active avoidance task: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Vol 66(2) Sep 1996, 246-251.
  • Wada, H., Hosokawa, T., & Saito, K. (1986). Application of a computer-controlled infrared beam device to behavioral research: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 24(6) Jun 1986, 1789-1792.
  • Wakizono, T., Sawamura, T., Shimizu, K., Nibuya, M., Suzuki, G., Toda, H., et al. (2007). Stress vulnerabilities in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: Physiology & Behavior Vol 90(4) Mar 2007, 687-695.
  • Wilcock, J., & Fulker, D. W. (1973). Avoidance learning in rats: Genetic evidence for two distinct behavioral processes in the shuttle box: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 82(2) Feb 1973, 247-253.
  • Woodruff, M. L., & Kantor, H. M. (1983). Fornix lesions, plasma ACTH levels, and shuttle box avoidance in rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 97(6) Dec 1983, 897-907.
  • Zhuikov, A. Y. (1985). Connection between learning of young rainbow trout in a shuttle box and its surviving in the presence of an unfamiliar predator: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 35(4) Jul-Aug 1985, 718-723.

DissertationsEdit

  • Malcolm, T. G. (1979). Avoidance behavior of goldfish in shuttleboxes: Contingency variation and a pseudo-learning effect: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • von Heyn, R. E. (1987). Facilitated free-operant avoidance performance following extended intersession intervals: Effects of exposure to home cage, test chamber, novel chamber, and shuttle-box escape responding during intersession interval: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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