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Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. Their effects are mediated by slow genomic mechanisms through nuclear receptors as well as by fast nongenomic mechanisms through membrane-associated receptors and signaling cascades. The term sex hormone is nearly always synonymous with sex steroid.
The development of both primary and secondary sexual characteristics is controlled by sex hormones after the initial fetal stage where the presence or absence of the Y-chromosome and/or the SRY gene determine development.
Synthetic sex steroidsEdit
There are also many synthetic sex steroids. Synthetic androgens are often referred to as anabolic steroids. Synthetic estrogens and progestins are used in methods of hormonal contraception. Ethinylestradiol is a semi-synthetic estrogen.
In many contexts, the two main classes of sex steroids are androgens and estrogens, of which the most important human derivatives are testosterone and estradiol, respectively. Other contexts will include progestagen as a third class of sex steroids, distinct from androgens and estrogens. Progesterone is the most important and only naturally-occurring human progestagen. In general, androgens are considered "male sex hormones", since they have masculinizing effects, while estrogens and progestagens are considered "female sex hormones" although all types are present in each gender, albeit at different levels.
Sex steroids include:
- Androgen insensitivity syndrome
- Gonadotropic hormones
- Klinefelter's syndrome
- Lutinizing hormone
- Sex-hormone therapy
- ↑ Comparative metabolism of female sex steroids in normal and chronically inflamed gingiva of the dog T. M. A. ElAttar11Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. and Department of Periodontology, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden AND A. Hugoson11Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. and Department of Periodontology, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden1Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. and Department of Periodontology, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden
Pharmacology: major drug groups
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