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Sella turcica

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Template:Infobox bone The sella turcica (literally Turkish Chair) is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone of the human skull and of the skulls of other Hominidae including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas.

AnatomyEdit

The seat of the saddle is known as the hypophyseal fossa, which holds the pituitary gland. The hypophyseal fossa is located in a depression in the body of the sphenoid bone. Located anteriorly to the hypophyseal fossa is the tuberculum sellae.

Completing the formation of the saddle posteriorly is the dorsum sellae which is continuous with the clivus, inferoposteriorly. The dorsum sellae is terminated laterally by the posterior clinoid processes.

Pathological SignificanceEdit

Since the sella turcica forms a bony caudal border for the pituitary gland, a pituitary tumor usually extends upward in the rostral direction into the suprasellar region. This can result in compression of the optic chiasm, which lies on top of the pituitary, enveloping the pituitary stalk. Compression of the optic chiasm can lead to bitemporal hemianopsia, and, when there is no relevant trauma, this clinical finding is pathognomonic for a pituitary tumor.

Some pituitary adenomas can extend inferiorly, growing downward and invading the sphenoid bone and cavernous sinus.[1]Adenomas greater than 10mm (macroadenomas) can cause remodeling of the underlying sphenoid bone altering the shape of the sella turcica.

Clinical significanceEdit

Sella turcica is usually used as a reference point with nasion to establish the base of the skull in cephalometric analysis. This is commonly done prior to orthodontic treatment. [2]

See alsoEdit

Additional imagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Knosp E, Steiner E, Kitz K, et al. Pituitary adenomas with invasion of the cavernous sinus space: a magnetic resonance imaging classification compared with surgical findings. Neurosurgery. 1993 Oct;33(4):610-7; discussion 617-8. PMID 8232800
  2. Proffit, William R.. Contemporary Orthodontics, 4th Edition. C.V. Mosby, 122006. 6.5.2.1). vbk:978-0-323-04046-4#outline(6.5.2.1)

Template:No footnotes

  • Marieb, Elaine Nicpon (2004). Human Anatomy & Physiology, 6th, Pearson Education.

External linksEdit

Human cranial bones

occipital bone: Foramen magnum | Squama occipitalis (Inion | Nuchal lines | Planum occipitale | Planum nuchale | Cruciform eminence | Internal occipital protuberance | Sagittal sulcus | Internal occipital crest)
Lateral parts (Hypoglossal canal | Condyloid fossa | Condyloid canal | Jugular process | Jugular tubercle) | Basilar part (Pharyngeal tubercle)

parietal bone: Parietal eminence | Temporal line | Parietal foramen

frontal bone: Squama frontalis (Frontal suture | Frontal eminence | Superciliary arches | Glabella | Supraorbital foramen | Zygomatic process | Sagittal sulcus | Frontal crest | Foramen cecum)
Pars orbitalis (Frontal sinus | Frontonasal duct)

temporal bone: Squama temporalis (Articular tubercle | Suprameatal triangle | Mandibular fossa | Petrotympanic fissure) | Mastoid portion (Mastoid foramen
Mastoid process | Mastoid notch | Occipital groove | Sigmoid sulcus | Mastoid antrum)
Petrous portion (Hiatus of the facial canal | Internal auditory meatus | Subarcuate fossa | Carotid canal | Aqueduct of cochlea | Jugular fossa | Inferior tympanic canaliculus | Mastoid canaliculus | Styloid process | Stylomastoid foramen | Petrosquamous suture) | Tympanic part (Suprameatal spine) | Zygomatic process

sphenoid bone: Sphenoidal sinuses | Ethmoidal spine | Optic foramen | Sella turcica | Fossa hypophyseos | Dorsum sellae | Posterior clinoid processes | Carotid groove | Lingula sphenoidalis | Sphenoidal conchæ | Great wings (Spina angularis | Foramen rotundum | Foramen ovale | Foramen Vesalii | Foramen spinosum | Infratemporal crest | Sulcus tubae auditivae | Small wings | Superior orbital fissure | Anterior clinoid process | Optic foramen)
Pterygoid processes (Pterygoid fossa | Scaphoid fossa | Lateral pterygoid plate | Medial pterygoid plate | Pterygoid hamulus | Sphenoidal conchæ | Sphenoidal sinuses)

ethmoid bone: Cribriform plate | Crista galli | Perpendicular plate | Labyrinth | Ethmoid sinus | Uncinate process | Middle nasal concha | Superior meatus | Superior nasal concha | Middle meatus

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