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See self preservationfor human details

Self preservation in animals is part of an organisms's instinct that demands that the organism survives. Pain and fear are parts of this mechanism. Pain causes discomfort so that the organism is inclined to stop the pain. Fear causes the organism to seek safety and may cause a release of adrenaline which has the effect of increased strength and heightened senses such as hearing, smell, and sight.

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  • Archer, J., & Cote, S. (2005). Sex Differences in Aggressive Behavior: A Developmental and Evolutionary Perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Fere, C. S., & Van Der Horst, U. (1932). Scientific and esoteric studies in sexual degeneration in mankind and in animals. New York, NY ; US: Anthropological Press; Falstaff Press.
  • Ribot, T. H. (1911). The instinct of conservation in its physiological form. London, England: Walter Scott Publishing Co.


  • Alpatov, A. M., Zotov, V. A., Tshernyshev, W. B., & Rietveld, W. J. (1999). Endogenous circadian rhythm is a crucial tool for survival of the sand-desert Tenebrionid beetle Trigonoscelis gigas Reitter: Biological Rhythm Research Vol 30(1) Feb 1999, 104-109.
  • Altmann, J., & Alberts, S. C. (2005). Growth rates in a wild primate population: ecological influences and maternal effects: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 57(5) Mar 2005, 490-501.
  • Bales, K., Dietz, J., Baker, A., Miller, K., & Tardif, S. D. (2000). Effects of allocare-givers on fitness of infants and parents in callitrichid primates: Folia Primatologica Vol 71(1-2) Jan-Apr 2000, 27-38.
  • Cabezas, S., Blas, J., Marchant, T. A., & Moreno, S. (2007). Physiological stress levels predict survival probabilities in wild rabbits: Hormones and Behavior Vol 51(3) Mar 2007, 313-320.
  • Cowlishaw, G. (1998). The role of vigilance in the survival and reproductive strategies of desert baboons: Behaviour Vol 135(4) Jun 1998, 431-452.
  • De Luca, D. W., & Ginsberg, J. R. (2001). Dominance, reproduction and survival in banded mongooses: Towards an egalitarian social system? : Animal Behaviour Vol 61(1) Jan 2001, 17-30.
  • Fuiman, L. A., Rose, K. A., Cowan, J. H., Jr., & Smith, E. P. (2006). Survival skills required for predator evasion by fish larvae and their relation to laboratory measures of performance: Animal Behaviour Vol 71(6) Jun 2006, 1389-1399.
  • Hillstrom, L., Kilpi, M., & Lindstrom, K. (2000). Is asynchronous hatching adaptive in herring gulls (Larus argentatus)? : Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 47(5) Apr 2000, 304-311.
  • Keller, T. A., & Hazlett, B. A. (1996). Mechanical use of crayfish chelae: Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology Vol 28(3) 1996, 149-162.
  • Li, Y. X., Greenberg, S. M., & Liu, T. X. (2007). Orientation behavior, development and survival of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae on cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab and conventional cotton: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 20(5) Sep 2007, 473-488.
  • Liang, H., & Zhang, Z. (2006). Food restriction affects reproduction and survival of F1 and F2 offspring of Rat-like hamster (Cricetulus triton): Physiology & Behavior Vol 87(3) Mar 2006, 607-613.
  • Loidl, C. F., Gavilanes, A. W. D., Van Dijk, E. H. J., Vreuls, W., Blokland, A., Vles, J. S. H., et al. (2000). Effects of hypothermia and gender on survival and behavior after perinatal asphyxia in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 68(3) Jan 2000, 263-269.
  • Persons, M. H., Walker, S. E., Rypstra, A. L., & Marshall, S. D. (2001). Wolf spider predator avoidance tactics and survival in the presence of diet-associated predator cues (Araneae: Lycosidae): Animal Behaviour Vol 61(1) Jan 2001, 43-51.
  • Sackett, G. P., Ruppenthal, G. C., & Davis, A. E. (2002). Survival, growth, health, and reproduction following nursery rearing compared with mother rearing in pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina): American Journal of Primatology Vol 56(3) Mar 2002, 165-183.
  • Sarno, R. J., Bank, M. S., Stern, H. S., & Franklin, W. L. (2003). Forced dispersal of juvenile guanacos ( Lama guanicoe ): Causes, variation, and fates of individuals dispersing at different times: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 54(1) Jun 2003, 22-29.
  • Tarpy, D. R., & Fletcher, D. J. C. (1998). Effects of relatedness on queen competition within honey bee colonies: Animal Behaviour Vol 55(3) Mar 1998, 537-543.
  • von Engelhardt, N., Dijkstra, C., Daan, S., & Groothuis, T. G. G. (2004). Effects of 17-beta -estradiol treatment of female zebra finches on offspring sex ratio and survival: Hormones and Behavior Vol 45(5) May 2004, 306-313.

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