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==Self medication with alcohol==
 
==Self medication with alcohol==
 
 
   
 
==Self medication and drugs of addiction==
 
==Self medication and drugs of addiction==

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Self-medication is the use of drugs, sometimes prescription drug sometimes illicit, to treat a perceived or real malady, often of a psychological nature without consultation with medical personnel.

Over-the-counter drugs are a form of self medication. The buyer diagnoses their own illness and buys a specific nonprescription drug to treat it. The World Self-Medication Industry (WSMI) define self-medication as the treatment of common health problems with medicines especially designed and labeled for use without medical supervision and approved as safe and effective for such use.

A person may also self-medicate by taking more or less than the recommended dose of a drug.

Some mental illness sufferers attempt to correct their illnesses by use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or other mind-altering drugs. While this may provide immediate relief of some symptoms such as anxiety, it may evoke and/or exacerbate some symptoms of several kinds of mental illnesses that are already latently present, and may lead to addiction/dependence, among other side effects of long-term use of the drug.

The theory that drug dependence or addiction results from self-medication for the distress caused by a pre-existing condition was introduced in 1974 by David F. Duncan and Edward J. Khantzian in independent publications. This theory has come to be known as the self-medication hypothesis. For example, sufferers of post-traumatic stress disorder are prone to self-medication, as well as many individual without this diagnosis which have suffered from (mental) trauma.

Occasionally an individual will attempt self-medication for physical illnesses. For example, it is believed that Kurt Cobain's use of heroin partially stemmed from a painful stomach condition.

The current phenomenon in many Western societies of the widespread usage of vitamins, herbs, and other over-the-counter "supplements"--usually without the advice, supervision, or even knowledge of any licensed health professional--is another possible example of self-medication. Some observers of health behavior and medical affairs have speculated that this trend may arise from the desire of laymen to feel more in control of their own health--rather than relying on the traditional medical establishment, whose motives are sometimes seen as suspect. The extraordinary increases in the cost of traditional health care in recent decades--doctors, hospitals, prescriptions, etc.-- causes some individuals to desperately try to find more affordable alternatives to treat or prevent their own afflictions, though this pursuit sometimes proves to be ineffective and expensive.

Self medication with alcohol

Self medication and drugs of addiction


See also

References & Bibliography

Key texts

Books

  • Albanese, M. J., & Khantzian, E. J. (2002). Self-medication theory and modified dynamic group therapy. New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Crawley, B. (1993). Self-medication and the elderly. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Harchik, A. E. (1994). Self-medication skills. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
  • Weiss, R. D., & Mirin, S. M. (1997). Substance abuse as an attempt at self-medication. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Papers

  • Achalu, ED (2002).The self-medication hypothesis: a review of the two major theories and the research evidence. SMH: Recent Developments on the Self-Medication Hypothesis, 1(10), id1. [1]
  • Blenkinsopp A, Bradley C (1996). Over the counter drugs: the future for self medication. British Medical Journal, 312, 835.
  • Duncan DF (1974a). Reinforcement of drug abuse: Implications for prevention. Clinical Toxicology Bulletin, 4(2), 69.
  • Duncan DF (1974b). Drug abuse as a coping mechanism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131(6), 724.
  • Duncan DF (1975).The acquisition, maintenance and treatment of polydrug dependence: A public health model. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 7(2), 201.
  • Hughes CM, McElnay JC, Fleming GF (2001). Benefits and risks of self medication. Drug Safety, 24, 1027
  • Khantzian, EJ, Mack JE, Schatzberg AF (1974). Heroin use as an attempt to cope: clinical observations. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131(2), 160.
  • Khantzian EJ (1985). The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: focus on heroin and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142(11), 1259.
  • Khantzian EJ (1990) Self-regulation and self-medication factors in alcoholism and the addictions. similarities and differences. Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 8, 255.
  • Khantzian, E. J. (1997). The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: A reconsideration and recent applications: Harvard Review of Psychiatry Vol 4(5) Jan-Feb 1997, 231-244.
  • Khantzian, E. J. (2003). The Self-Medication Hypothesis Revisited: The Dually Diagnosed Patient: Primary Psychiatry Vol 10(9) Sep 2003, 47-48, 53-54.
  • Khantzian, E. J. (2003). Understanding Addictive Vulnerability: An Evolving Psychodynamic Perspective: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 5(1) 2003, 5-21.
  • Khantzian, E. J. (2003). "Understanding Addictive Vulnerability: An Evolving Psychodynamic Perspective": Response to Commentaries: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 5(1) 2003, 53-56.
  • Wazaify M, Shields E, Hughes CM, McElnay JC (2005). Societal perspectives on over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. Family Practice, 22: 170-176.

Additional material

Books

  • Blazer, D. G. (2004). Alcohol and Drug Problems. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  • Cheney, C. D. (1996). Medical nonadherence: A behavior analysis. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Huffman, M. A., & Wrangham, R. W. (1994). Diversity of medicinal plant use by chimpanzees in the wild. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Rand, C. S., & Weeks, K. (1998). Measuring adherence with medication regimens in clinical care and research. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.

Papers

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  • Wilens, T. E., Adamson, J., Sgambati, S., Whitley, J., Santry, A., Monuteaux, M. C., et al. (2007). Do Individuals with ADHD Self-Medicate with Cigarettes and Substances of Abuse? Results from a Controlled Family Study of ADHD: The American Journal on Addictions Vol 16(Suppl 1) Jan 2007, 14-23.
  • Winkelstein, M. L., Huss, K., Butz, A., Eggleston, P., Vargas, P., & Rand, C. (2000). Factors associated with medication self-administration in children with asthma: Clinical Pediatrics Vol 39(6) Jun 2000, 337-345.
  • Wu, C. C. J., Xue, Z.-Y., Apichat, K., Huang, S.-T., He, Z., & Garceau, R. J. (1996). The use of alprostadil sterile powder in a home self-injection study of Asian men with erectile dysfunction: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 18(2) Mar-Apr 1996, 256-264.
  • Yorke, C. (2003). Commentary on "Understanding Addictive Vulnerability." Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 5(1) 2003, 42-53.
  • Zahorik, P. M. (1992). Juvenile diabetes: A study of children's perceptions of their illness: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Zucker, T.-P., Flesche, C. W., Germing, U., Schroter, S., Willers, R., Wolf, H.-H., et al. (1998). Patient-controlled versus staff-controlled analgesia with pethidine after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: Pain Vol 75(2-3) Apr 1998, 305-312.

=Dissertations

  • Adcock, S. A. W. (1993). The development and evaluation of an educational intervention to teach responsible medication use to senior adults: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Alexander, G. L. (1992). Social support, self-esteem, and medication-taking behavior in older adults: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Branin, J. J. (2003). Correlates of strategy use in medication adherence among older adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Caffery, D. M. (2007). Components of medication management: Psychometric properties of the Cognitive Screen for Medication Self-Management (CSMS) test in older adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Charupatanapong, N. (1990). An analysis of consumers' risk perceptions of their self-medication practices in Thailand: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Damphousse, K. R. (1995). Reciprocal relationships between adolescent drug use and psychological distress: An examination of the self-medication hypothesis. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Dowell, M. S. (1991). People's expectations of their medications: An ethnographic study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hall, D. H. (2005). Contributing to self-medication hypothesis research: A focus on severity of substance abuse and negative affect states in a methadone maintenance population. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lynch, W. J. (2000). Regulation of intravenously self-administered drug intake in rats: Factors affecting, mechanisms underlying, and sex differences. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Miller, N. G. (1991). Decreasing medication abuse in psychiatric outpatients using special packaging: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Miralles, M. A. (1993). Access to care and medication use among the ambulatory elderly in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ostrowsky, M. K. (2007). Extending khantzian's self-medication hypothesis: An examination of low self-esteem, depression, alcohol use, marijuana use, and violent behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Pabon, T. M. (2004). The self-medication theory of addictive disorders: Motivational aspects of drug addiction. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Rice, M. A. (1998). Concordant and discordant drug use in intimate relationships: A longitudinal study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Robinson, R. J. (2008). Comorbidity of alcohol abuse and depression: Exploring the self-medication hypothesis. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Stawar, T. L. (1991). Perceptual learning style, modality-specific mnemonic elaboration strategies and achievement of severely psychiatrically disabled adults in self-medication management skills training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Stockwell, L. M. (1993). A qualitative exploration of medication-taking behaviors in the elderly: Dissertation Abstracts International.


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