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Individual differences |
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As with hypnosis--that is, the direction to an altered state of consciousness with the aid of a psychologist--particular individuals require less training and are theoretically more susceptible to the trance than others. Whatever the case, it has also been frequently recommended that individuals wishing to undergo such states be adequately trained, as the use of suggestion and delving into unconscious areas of the mind can have devastating results without proper psychological foreknowledge.
In autohypnosis, the subject places themselves in a tranquil or neutral environment, usually laying down or reclining. Many utilize a mantra, or a repetitious phrase associated with the direct goal of the hypnosis, however it is not mandatory; others use soothing music or aromatherapy, among other keys in preparing surroundings. It should be noted that meditation and autohypnosis are usually associated as the same practice and in many cases are mistaken as the same. However, the latter is a scientific, psychological therapy, while meditation has been used in various cultures (eg. Hindu, Muslim, even certain denominations of Christianity utilize basic principles into religious services) for centuries as a practice to further one's spiritual well-being. Both however are used in modern psychiatric institutions and have parallel goals in individual and group therapy.
Self-hypnosis is used extensively in modern hypnotherapy. It can take the form of hypnosis carried out by means of a learned routine.
Recalling the pre-morbid experiences before the onset of the disease, would greatly help in the possible alleviation of the situation. Even in medical care, there has been occasional use of autohypnosis as a method to prepare the patient for the coming cure. It is widely suggested that instead of resisting the method with biases, it's worth a mild try.
The English term "hypnotism" was introduced in 1841 by the Scottish physician and surgeon James Braid. According to Braid, he first employed "self-hypnotism" (as he elsewhere refers to it) two years after discovering hypnotism, first teaching it to his clients before employing it on himself.
My first experiments on this point [i.e., self-hypnosis] were instituted in the presence of some friends on the 1st May, 1843, and following days. I believe they were the first experiments of the kind which had ever been tried, and they have succeeded in every case in which I have so operated.
In a later work, Observations on Trance or Human Hybernation (1850), Braid provides probably the first account of self-hypnosis by someone employing it upon themselves.
Braid's Account of Self-Hypnotism
It is commonly said that seeing is believing, but feeling is the very truth. I shall, therefore, give the result of my experience of hypnotism in my own person. In the middle of September, 1844, I suffered from a most severe attack of rheumatism, implicating the left side of the neck and chest, and the left arm. At first the pain was moderately severe, and I took some medicine to remove it; but, instead of this, it became more and more violent, and had tormented me for three days, and was so excruciating, that it entirely deprived me of sleep for three nights successively, and on the last of the three nights I could not remain in any one posture for five minutes, from the severity of the pain. On the forenoon of the next day, whilst visiting my patients, every jolt of the carriage I could only compare to several sharp instruments being thrust through my shoulder, neck, and chest. A full inspiration was attended with stabbing pain, such as is experienced in pleurisy. When I returned home for dinner I could neither turn my head, lift my arm, nor draw a breath, without suffering extreme pain. In this condition I resolved to try the effects of hypnotism. I requested two friends, who were present, and who both understood the system, to watch the effects, and arouse me when I had passed sufficiently into the condition; and, with their assurance that they would give strict attention to their charge, I sat down and hypnotised myself, extending the extremities. At the expiration of nine minutes they aroused me, and, to my agreeable surprise, I was quite free from pain, being able to move in any way with perfect ease. I say agreeably surprised, on this account; I had seen like results with many patients; but it is one thing to hear of pain, and another to feel it. My suffering was so exquisite that I could not imagine anyone else ever suffered so intensely as myself on that occasion; and, therefore, I merely expected a mitigation, so that I was truly agreeably surprised to find myself quite free from pain. I continued quite easy all the afternoon, slept comfortably all night, and the following morning felt a little stiffness, but no pain. A week thereafter I had a slight return, which I removed by hypnotising myself once more; and I have remained quite free from rheumatism ever since, now nearly six years.
Émile Coué was one of the most influential figures in the subsequent development of self-hypnosis. His method of "conscious autosuggestion" became an internationally-renowned self-help system at the start of the 20th century. Although Coué distanced himself from the concept of "hypnosis", he sometimes referred to what he was doing as self-hypnosis, as did his followers such as Charles Baudouin. Modern hypnotherapists regard Coué as part of their own field.
Autogenic training is a relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Schultz and first published in 1932. Schultz based his approach on the work of the German hypnotist Oskar Vogt.
Salter wrote an article describing the modus operandi of self-hypnosis but couldn’t get it published. None of the professional journals would touch the piece. At length, after many rebuffs, he sent a copy to Professor Clark Leonard Hull, of Yale’s Psychology Department. Hull is the author of a work entitled Hypnosis & Suggestibility, and is not only one of the chief oracles of American psychology, but perhaps the world’s greatest oracle on matters pertaining to hypnotism. Hull read Salter’s article (though he had never heard of Salter) and was sufficiently impressed to send it along to the Journal of General Psychology, of which he is an editor.
His technique was developed over the space of two years during which he tested the methods with just over 200 subjects. Salter described methods of teaching self-hypnosis by,
1. Autohypnosis by post-hypnotic suggestion.
2. Autohypnosis by memorised trance instructions. (Scripted suggestions.)
3. Fractional autohypnosis. (Part learning.)
Salter's behavioural approach, influenced by Clark L. Hull, was a primitive precursor of modern hypnotic skills training programmes such as the Carleton Skills Training Programme developed by Nicholas Spanos.
Reviewing the findings of three previous studies in this area, John F. Kihlstrom recently concluded,
Comparisons of self-hypnosis with more traditional 'hetero-'hypnosis show that they are highly correlated.
At the same time, Kihlstrom questions the extent to which most self-hypnosis qualitatively resembles the experience of traditional hetero-hypnosis.
- ↑ Braid, J. (1843). Neurypnology, "Author's preface"
- ↑ Braid, J. (1850). Observations on Trance or Human Hybernation
- ↑ Salter, A. 'Three techniques of autohypnosis', Journal of General Psychology, 1941
- ↑ Life Magazine, November 10th 1941
- ↑ Kihlstrom, John F. 'The domain of hypnosis, revisited', in The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis, 2008: 24.
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