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Buddha image - stone - with disciple

An image of Gautama Buddha with a Manji, traditionally a Buddhist symbol of infinity, on his chest. Ananda, the Buddha's disciple, appears in the background. This statue is from Hsi Lai Temple.

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Buddhism and psychology
Buddhist psychology
Buddhist philosophy
Buddhism and psychoanalysis
Buddhism and psychotherapy

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
The Five Precepts
Nirvāna · Three Jewels

Key Concepts
Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Samsara · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma

Practices and Attainment
Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation

Buddhism by Region

Schools of Buddhism
Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools

Pali Suttas · Mahayana Sutras
Vinaya · Abhidhamma

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics

Dharma wheel 1

There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. An extensive list of historical schools is given below according to lineage. Surviving schools can be roughly grouped under the categories of Theravāda, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna. Theravāda and Mahāyāna share common methods as sutric schools, while Vajrayāna can be seen as a tantric school.

Most of the sects encourage followers to adhere to certain practices and philosophies, some shared, some unique to the particular school.

Nikaya schools Edit

Main article: Nikaya Buddhism

See also: Early Buddhist schools

Twenty sects Edit

The following lists the twenty sects described as Hinayana in some Mahayana texts:

Sthaviravada (上座部) was split into 11 sects. These were:

説一切有部(Sarvastivadin)、雪山部(Haimavata)、犢子部(Vatsiputriya)、法上部 (Dharmottara)、賢冑部(Bhadrayaniya)、正量部(Sammitiya)、密林山部(Channagirika)、化地部 (Mahisasaka)、法蔵部(Dharmaguptaka)、飲光部(Kasyapiya)、経量部(Sautrantika).
 Sthaviravada─┬─ Haimavata────────────────────────────────────────────
              └─ Sarvastivadin─┬───────────────────────────────────
                               ├ Vatsiputriya ─┬────────────────────
                               │               ├ Dharmottara───────
                               │               ├ Bhadrayaniya─────
                               │               ├ Sammitiya──────── 
                               │               └ Channagirika─────
                               ├ Mahisasaka─┬─────────────────────
                               │            └ Dharmaguptaka──────
                               ├ Kasyapiya────────────────────────
                               └ Sautrantika──────────────────────

Mahasanghika (大衆部) was split into 9 sects. There were:

一説部(Ekavyaharaka)、説出世部(Lokottaravadin)、鶏胤部 (Kaukkutika)、多聞部(Bahussrutiya)、説仮部(Prajnaptivada)、制多山部(Caitika)、西山住部 (Aparasaila)、北山住部(Uttarasaila).
             ├ EkavyaharakaCaitikaLokottaravadinAparasailaKaukkutikaUttarasailaBahussrutiyaPrajnaptivada

Influences on East Asian schoolsEdit

The following later schools used the Vinaya of the Dharmaguptaka:

Theravada subschoolsEdit

The different schools in Theravada often emphasize different aspects (or parts) of the Pali Canon and the later commentaries, or differ in the focus on (and recommended way of) practice. There are also significant differences in strictness or interpretation of the Vinaya.

Mahāyāna schoolsEdit

Tantric schoolsEdit

see also: Vajrayāna Subcategorised according to predecessors

Navayāna BuddhismEdit

See alsoEdit


Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN 1-57062-002-4.

Warder, A.K. (1970). Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

External linksEdit

fr:Écoles du bouddhisme nl:Boeddhistische stromingen ru:Школы буддизма vi:Các tông phái Phật giáo

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