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Investigators have studied the relationship between schizophrenia and influenza as a particular application of the Pathogenic theory of schizophrenia.



  • Brown, A. S., & Susser, E. S. (1999). Plausibility of prenatal rubella, influenza, and other viral infections as risk factors for schizophrenia. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.


  • Adams, W., & Kendell, R. E. (1996). Influenza and schizophrenia: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Adams, W., & Kendell, R. E. (1996). "Influenza and schizophrenia": Reply: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Adams, W., & Kendell, R. E. (1997). "Influenza and schizophrenia": Reply: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Adams, W., Kendell, R. E., Hare, E. H., & Munk-Jorgensen, P. (1993). Epidemiological evidence that maternal influenza contributes to the aetiology of schizophrenia: An analysis of Scottish, English, and Danish data: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Bagalkote, H., Pang, D., & Jones, P. B. (2000). Maternal influenza and schizophrenia in the offspring: International Journal of Mental Health.
  • Barr, C. E., Mednick, S. A., & Munk-Jorgensen, P. (1990). Exposure to influenza epidemics during gestation and adult schizophrenia: A 40-year study: Archives of General Psychiatry.
  • Bembenek, A. (2005). Does the foetus exposition on influenza infection may increase the risk of schizophrenia in adult life? : Psychiatria Polska.
  • Boksa, P. (2008). Maternal infection during pregnancy and schizophrenia: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience.
  • Bowler, A. E., & Torrey, E. F. (1990). "Maternal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia": Comment: Archives of General Psychiatry.
  • Brown, A. S., Begg, M. D., Gravenstein, S., Schaefer, C. A., Wyatt, R. J., Bresnahan, M., et al. (2004). Serologic Evidence of Prenatal Influenza in the Etiology of Schizophrenia: Archives of General Psychiatry.
  • Cannon, M., Cotter, D., Coffey, V. P., Sham, P. C., & et al. (1996). Prenatal exposure to the 1957 influenza epidemic and adult schizophrenia: A follow-up study: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Cooper, S. J. (1992). Schizophrenia after prenatal exposure to 1957 A2 influenza epidemic: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Cotter, D., Takei, N., Farrell, M., Sham, P., & et al. (1995). Does prenatal exposure to influenza in mice induce pyramidal cell disarray in the dorsal hippocampus? : Schizophrenia Research.
  • Crow, T. J. (1994). Prenatal exposure to influenza as a cause of schizophrenia: There are inconsistencies and contradictions in the evidence: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Crow, T. J. (1996). Influenza and schizophrenia: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Crow, T. J. (1997). Influenza and schizophrenia: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Crow, T. J., Bromet, E., Jablensky, A., Takei, N., & et al. (1995). Comments on Takei et al.: Prenatal exposure to influenza epidemics and the risk of mental retardation: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience.
  • Crow, T. J., & Done, D. J. (1992). Prenatal exposure to influenza does not cause schizophrenia: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Curtis, D. (1992). Schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to influenza epidemics between 1939 and 1960: British Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., Folnegovic, Z., Hrabak-Zerjavic, V., Borcic, B., & et al. (1994). Schizophrenia and prenatal exposure to the 1957 A2 influenza epidemic in Croatia: The American Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Fatemi, S. H., Folsom, T. D., Reutiman, T. J., Abu-Odeh, D., Mori, S., Huang, H., et al. (2009). Abnormal expression of myelination genes and alterations in white matter fractional anisotropy following prenatal viral influenza infection at E16 in mice: Schizophrenia Research


  • Dykes, K. L. (1996). Prenatal viral infection, developmental abnormalities, and schizophrenia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

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