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Schizophrenia - Wisconsin Card Sort Test

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The Wisconsin Card Sort Test is also widely used in research into schizophrenia. It is used as a measure of working memory and of flexibility in thinking. e.g.[1][2]


Schizophrenia PET scan

Data from a PET study[3] suggests that the less the frontal lobes are activated (red) during a working memory task, the greater the increase in abnormal dopamine activity in the striatum (green), thought to be related to the neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia.


See also

References & Bibliography

  1. Cannon TD, Glahn DC, Kim J, Van Erp TG, Karlsgodt K, Cohen MS, Nuechterlein KH, Bava S, Shirinyan D., Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activity During Maintenance and Manipulation of Information in Working Memory in Patients With Schizophrenia, Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:1071-1080.
  2. Rossi A, Daneluzzo E, Tomassini A, Struglia F, Cavallaro R, Smeraldi E, Stratta P., The effect of verbalization strategy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenic patients receiving classical or atypical antipsychotics. BMC Psychiatry. 2006 Jan 26;6:3.
  3. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Miletich RS, Kohn PD, Esposito G, Carson RE, Quarantelli M, Weinberger DR, Berman KF (2002) Reduced prefrontal activity predicts exaggerated striatal dopaminergic function in schizophrenia. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 267-71.

Key texts

Books

  • Green, M. F., Hellman, S., & Kern, R. S. (1997). Feasibility studies of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: Grasping the little picture. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
  • Wiedl, K. H., Wienobst, J., & Schottke, H. (2001). Estimating rehabilitation potential in schizophrenic subjects. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

Papers

  • Nisbet, H., Siegert, R., Hunt, M., Fairley, N. (1996). Improving schizophrenic in-patients' Wisconsin card-sorting performance. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 631-3.
  • Vollema, M. G., Geurtsen, G. J., Augustinus, J. P., & van Voorst, J. P. (1995). Durable improvements in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenic patients.Schizophrenia Research, 16, 209-15.
  • Young, D. A., Freyslinger, M. G. (1995). Scaffolded instruction and the remediation of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 16, 199-

207.

Additional material

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