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Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality

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The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) is a self-reporting questionnaire for assessment of personality disorders (Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) [1] introduced in 1993 by Lee Anna Clark. [2] It is not to be confused with SNAP-IV — the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale, rev. 4.[3]

Initially it was compiled from the DSM-III criteria. The questions are grouped into 15 scales. Twelve of them assess maladaptive personality: mistrust, self-harm, eccentric perceptions, aggression, manipulativeness, entitlement, detachment, exhibitionism, dependency, impulsivity, workaholism, propriety, and three assess rather broad traits: negative temperament, positive temperament, disinhibition, [4]

The convergence of SNAP with other independently developed tests, such as DAPP-BQ (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology—Basic Questionnaire), are noted in literature.

One study provided some evidence for the test-retest reliability and predictive validity.[5]

See alsoEdit


  1. John M. Oldham, Andrew E. Skodol, Donna S. Bender (2005) "The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook Of Personality Disorders", ISBN 1-58562-159-5 , p. 96
  2. Clark, L. A. (1993). The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). Minneapolis, MN : University of Minnesota Press.
  3. David Shaffer, Christopher P. Lucas, John Edward Richters (eds.) (1999) "Diagnostic Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology", ISBN 1-57230-502-9, p. 110
  4. W. John Livesley (1999) "Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment", ISBN 1-57230-629-7 p. 24
  5. Melley, Alison H., Thomas F. Oltmanns, Eric Turkheimer (June 2002). The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (Snap) Temporal Stability and Predictive Validity of the Diagnostic Scales. Assessment 9 (2): 181–187.
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