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Early muslim scholars and scientists in the arab world e.g. avicina and averoes from the 12th century onwards were the first to atempt to move away from pagan beliefs in attributing mental disorders to be of supernatural phenomen. e.g. it was thought epilepsy was caused by invisible demons. up until then no attempt had been made to codify the symptoms, they tested on children and adults to find the root cause of mental illness such as delusions schizophrenia or hallucinations. However the contradiction on early islamic and modern psychology from religious and scientific perspective is the symptoms of psychological and neurological problems was atrributed to jinns or demonic possesion and the cure lay in spiritual hands if it could no be treated medically and vice versa.