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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
There are a number biological mechanisms which have been identified as underlying satiation.
The three known food-specific forms of suppression of appetite for food by effects of eating are:
The ventromedial nucleus (VMN) is most commonly associated with satiety. Early studies showed that VMN lesions caused over-eating and obesity in rats. However, the interpretation of these experiments was summarily discredited when Gold's research demonstrated that precision lesioning of the VMN did not result in hyperphagia. Nevertheless, numerous studies have shown that the immediacy of hyperphagia and obesity syndrome are a consequence of VMN lesions or procaine injections, and point to the VMN's role in satiety.
A major review of the subject in 2006 concluded that, "anatomical studies done both before and after Gold's study did not replicate his results with lesions, and in nearly every published direct comparison of VMH lesions vs. PVN or VNAB lesions, the group with VMH lesions ate substantially more food and gained twice as much weight." This strongly substantiates the classification of VMN as the primary satiety center in the hypothalamus.
- Animal feeding behavior
- Food intake
- Lateral hypothalamus feeding centre
- Ob/ob mice
- Predator satiation, an anti-predator adaptation involving high population densities of the prey
- Semantic satiation, where repetition of a word or phrase causes it to temporarily lose meaning
- Water intake
- ↑ Gold, R.M. (1973). Hypothalamic Obesity: The myth of the ventromedial nucleus. Science 182: 488–490.
- ↑ Balagura, S., Devenport, L.D. (1970). Feeding patterns of normal and ventromedial hypothalamic lesioned male and female rats. J. Comp Physiol Psychol 71: 357–364.
- ↑ Becker, E.E., Kissileff, H.R. (1974). Inhibitory controls of feeding by the ventromedial hypothalamus. Am J. Physiol 226: 383–396.
- ↑ Berthoud, H.R., Jeanrenaud, B. (1979). Changes in insulinemia, glycemia and feeding behavior induced by VMH-procainization in the rat. Brain Res 174: 184–187.
- ↑ Brooks, C.M., Lockwood, R.A., Wiggins, M.L. (1946). A study of the effects of hypothalamic lesions on the eating habits of the albino rat. Am J Physiol 147: 735–741.
- ↑ Epstein, A.N. (1960). Reciprocal changes in feeding behavior produced by intrahypothalamic chemical injections. Am J Physiol 199: 969–974.
- ↑ Larkin, R.P. (1975). Effect of ventromedial hypothalamic procaine injections on feeding, lever pressing, and other behavior in the rat. J Comp Physiol Psychol 89: 1100–1108.
- ↑ Maes, H. (1980). Time course of feeding induced by pentobarbital-injections into the rat's VMH. Physiol Behav 24: 1107–1114.
- ↑ King, Bruce M. (February 2006). The rise, fall and resurrection of the ventromedial hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. J Physiol Behav 87 (2): 221–244.