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File:Sardines - 鰯(いわし).jpg
File:Sardina pilchardus 2011.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Clupeiformes
Family: Clupeidae
Subfamily: Clupeinae
Alliance: Sardine

Sardines, or pilchards, are several types of small, oily fish related to herrings, family Clupeidae.[1] Sardines are named after the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, around which they were once abundant.[2]

The terms sardine and pilchard are not precise, and what is meant depends on the region. The United Kingdom's Sea Fish Industry Authority, for example, classifies sardines as young pilchards.[3] One criterion suggests fish shorter in length than 6 inches (Template:Convert/cm)Template:Convert/test/A are sardines, and larger ones pilchards.[4] The FAO/WHO Codex standard for canned sardines cites 21 species that may be classed as sardines;[5] FishBase, a comprehensive database of information about fish, calls at least six species "pilchard", over a dozen just "sardine", and many more with the two basic names qualified by various adjectives.


Sardines as foodEdit

Sardines are rich in nutrients. They are commonly sold canned, but fresh sardines are often grilled, pickled or smoked.


Sardines are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.[6] Recent studies suggest that regular consumption of omega-3 fatty acids reduces the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s disease.[7] These fatty acids may also help lower blood sugar levels a small amount.[8] They are also a good source of vitamin D, calcium, B12, and protein.[9]

Because they are low in the food chain, sardines are very low in contaminants, such as mercury, relative to other fish commonly eaten by humans.[10]

Animal ethologyEdit

Animal instinctive behaviorEdit

Animal drinking behavior Edit

Animal escape behaviour Edit

Animal feeding behaviour Edit

Animal exploratory behavior Edit

Animal grooming behavior Edit

Animal hoarding behavior Edit

Animal nocturnal behavior Edit

Animal motivation Edit

Animal predatory behavior Edit

Animal scent marking Edit

Animal open field behavior Edit

Alarm responses Edit

Animal breeding Edit

Animal foraging behavior Edit

Animal homing Edit

Animal locomotion Edit

Animal navigation Edit

Animal vocalizations Edit

Animal alarm calls Edit

Animal distress calls Edit

Migratory behaviour (animal) Edit

Animal physiological psychologyEdit

Animal biological rhythms Edit

Animal circadian rythms Edit

Animal colouration Edit

Animal emotionality Edit

Animal sexual behavior Edit

Animal courtship behavior Edit

Animal courtship displays Edit

Animal sex differences Edit

Animal sexual receptivity Edit

Animal mating behavior Edit

Animal mate selection Edit

Animal rearing Edit

Animal parental behavior Edit

Animal maternal behavior Edit

Animal maternal deprivation Edit

Animal paternal behaviour Edit

Animal play Edit

Animal social behavior Edit

Animal defensive behavior Edit

Animal dominance Edit

Animal communication Edit

Species recognition Edit

Territorality Edit

Animals and man Edit

Main article: Sardines - Animals and man

Animal assisted therapy Edit

Animal breeding Edit

Animal captivity Edit

Animal domestication Edit

Animal human interaction Edit

Animal rearing Edit

Pets Edit

Interspecies interaction Edit

Other behavior of note Edit


See alsoEdit


  1. includeonly>"What's an oily fish?", Food Standards Agency, 2004-06-24.
  2. (2009). Sardine. The Good Food Glossary. BBC Worldwide. URL accessed on 2009-11-01.
  3. FAQs. Seafish. URL accessed on 22 February 2010.
  4. includeonly>Robin Stummer. "Who are you calling pilchard? It's 'Cornish sardine' to you...", The Independent, 17 August 2003. Retrieved on 2009-11-01.
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named codex
  6. Kris-Etherton et al (November 2002). Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation 106 (21): 2747–2757.
  7. Sharon Johnson. Oily brain food ... Yum. The Mail Tribune. URL accessed on 2009-11-01.
  8. Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid: MedlinePlus Supplements. URL accessed on 2010-01-22.
  9. Vitamin D and Healthy Bones. New York State Health Department. URL accessed on 2009-11-01.
  10. includeonly>"Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish", U S Food and Drug Administration, 5 July 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-01.

External linksEdit

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
[[Commons: Category:Sardines

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