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The term '''salience''' is used in a number of academic disciplines:
Because too much [[data]] can cause “[[cognitive]] clutter”, individuals need a system to enable them to rank available data in terms of its immediate importance. The majority of the available data will be of minor importance. Some elements, the '''salient''' elements, will be the most important and require attention.
 
   
==Discussion==
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Salience in psychology.
Human senses make a vast quantity of data available to the mind so the first question is to consider how the individual's internal mental organisation is configured to react. How does the mind interpret the data stream to filter out the irrelevant and leave only the salient [[sign (semiotics)|signs]]? In [[semiotics]], the process of converting signs into [[meaning]] is called [[semiosis]]. This is a metacognitive process working through [[Schema (psychology)|schema]] that constitute a [[mental model|model]] of the world. Such schema are created through, and monitored using, a range of skills including pattern matching, analysis, and synthesis.
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Distinctiveness, prominence, obviousness. The term is widely used in the study of perception and cognition to refer to any aspect of a stimulus that, for any of many reasons, stands out from the rest. Salience may be the result of emotional, motivational or cognitive factors and is not necessarily associated with physical factors such as intensity, clarity or size.
   
Meaning can be described as the “…system of mental representations of an [[object (philosophy)|object]] or [[phenomenon]], its properties and associations with other objects and/or phenomena. In the [[consciousness]] of an individual, meaning is reflected in the form of sensory information, [[image]]s and [[concept]]s.” (Bedny & Karwowsky, 2004). It is either [[denotation (Semiotics)|denotative]] or [[connotation (Semiotics)|connotative]] but the sign system for transmitting meanings can be uncertain in its operation or conditions may disrupt the communication and prevent accurate meanings from being decoded.
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*In [[neuroscience]] and [[psychology]]; see [[salience (neuroscience)]].
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*In [[CLIPS_programming_language|CLIPS]] (an expert systems programming language), salience allows a user to assign priority (or weight) to a rule.
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*In [[semiotics]]; see [[Salience (semiotics)]].
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*In project and general management the term ‘salience’ is used to describe the process of assessing the relative importance of the stakeholders and hence their requirements.
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In communication, the word salience is used for something outstanding, a highlight. There are interpersonal salience and intergroup salience.
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Salience (band) is also a rock group from Edmonton, Canada.
   
Further, meaning is socially constructed and dynamic as the [[culture]] evolves. This is problematic because an individual’s frame of reference and experience may produce some divergence from some of the prevailing social [[norms]]. So the salience of data will be determined by both situational and emotional elements in a combination relatively unique to each individual. For example, a person with an interest in [[botany]] may allocate greater salience to visual data involving plants, whereas a person training as an [[architect]] may scan buildings to identify features of interest. A person's [[world view]] or ''Weltanschauung'' may predispose salience to data matching those views. Because people live for many years, responses become [[Convention (philosophy and social sciences)|conventional]]. At a group or community level, the conventional levels of significance or salience are slowly embedded in the sign systems and culture, and they cannot arbitrarily be changed.
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{{Disambig}}
 
==References==
 
Bedny, G. & Karwowski, W. (2004) Meaning and sense in activity theory and their role in the study of human performance. ''International Journal of Ergonomics and Human Factors''. (26:2, 121-140.)
 
 
[[Category:Semiotics]]
 
 
{{enWP|Salience(semiotics)}}
 

Latest revision as of 07:52, January 18, 2008

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The term salience is used in a number of academic disciplines:

Salience in psychology. Distinctiveness, prominence, obviousness. The term is widely used in the study of perception and cognition to refer to any aspect of a stimulus that, for any of many reasons, stands out from the rest. Salience may be the result of emotional, motivational or cognitive factors and is not necessarily associated with physical factors such as intensity, clarity or size.

In communication, the word salience is used for something outstanding, a highlight. There are interpersonal salience and intergroup salience. Salience (band) is also a rock group from Edmonton, Canada.

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