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[[File:A child sad that his hot dog fell on the ground.jpg|thumb|A child [[crying]]]]
 
[[File:A child sad that his hot dog fell on the ground.jpg|thumb|A child [[crying]]]]
'''Sadness''' is an [[emotion]] characterized by [[feeling]]s of disadvantage, loss, and helplessness. When sad, people often become quiet, less energetic, and withdrawn.
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'''Sadness''' is an [[emotional state]] characterized by [[feeling]]s of disadvantage, loss, and helplessness. When sad, people often become quiet, less energetic, and withdrawn.
   
 
Sad is the negation of happy. Its synonyms are sorrow, grief, misery, and melancholy. The philosopher [[Baruch Spinoza]] defined sadness as the transfer of a person from a large perfection to a smaller one.
 
Sad is the negation of happy. Its synonyms are sorrow, grief, misery, and melancholy. The philosopher [[Baruch Spinoza]] defined sadness as the transfer of a person from a large perfection to a smaller one.
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===Books===
 
===Books===
 
===Papers===
 
===Papers===
 
==Additional material==
 
===Books===
 
===Papers===
 
 
==Sources==
 
 
*{{cite journal |author=Tiedens LZ |title=Anger and advancement versus sadness and subjugation: the effect of negative emotion expressions on social status conferral |journal=J Pers Soc Psychol |volume=80 |issue=1 |pages=86–94 |year=2001 |month=January |pmid=11195894 |url=http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/80/1/86 |doi=10.1037/0022-3514.80.1.86}}
 
*{{cite journal |author=Tiedens LZ |title=Anger and advancement versus sadness and subjugation: the effect of negative emotion expressions on social status conferral |journal=J Pers Soc Psychol |volume=80 |issue=1 |pages=86–94 |year=2001 |month=January |pmid=11195894 |url=http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/80/1/86 |doi=10.1037/0022-3514.80.1.86}}
 
* [http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~hgray/papers/PsycARTICLES_2002-18351-012.pdf Ambady & Gray, 2002]
 
* [http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~hgray/papers/PsycARTICLES_2002-18351-012.pdf Ambady & Gray, 2002]
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*{{cite journal |author=Forgas JP |title=The role of emotion in social judgments: an introductory review and an Affect Infusion Model (AIM) |journal=Eur J Soc Psychol |volume=24 |issue=1 |pages=1–24 |year=1994 |doi=10.1002/ejsp.2420240102}}
 
*{{cite journal |author=Forgas JP |title=The role of emotion in social judgments: an introductory review and an Affect Infusion Model (AIM) |journal=Eur J Soc Psychol |volume=24 |issue=1 |pages=1–24 |year=1994 |doi=10.1002/ejsp.2420240102}}
 
*{{cite journal |author=Forgas JP, Bower GH |title=Mood effects on person-perception judgments |journal=J Pers Soc Psychol |volume=53 |issue=1 |pages=53–60 |year=1987 |month=July |pmid=3612493 |url=http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/53/1/53 |doi=10.1037/0022-3514.53.1.53}}
 
*{{cite journal |author=Forgas JP, Bower GH |title=Mood effects on person-perception judgments |journal=J Pers Soc Psychol |volume=53 |issue=1 |pages=53–60 |year=1987 |month=July |pmid=3612493 |url=http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/53/1/53 |doi=10.1037/0022-3514.53.1.53}}
*{{cite journal |author=Isen AM, Daubman KA, Nowicki GP |title=Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving |journal=J Pers Soc Psychol |volume=52 |issue=6 |pages=1122–31 |year=1987 |month=June |pmid=3598858 |url=http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/52/6/1122 |doi=10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1122}}
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*{{cite journal |author=Isen AM, Daubman KA, Nowicki GP |title=Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving |journal=J Pers Soc Psychol |volume=52 |issue=6 |pages=1122–31 |year=1987 |month=June |pmid=3598858 |url=http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/52/6/1122 |doi=10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1122}}
* [http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~akring/keltner%20&%20kring%201998.pdf Keltner et al., 1998]
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*{{cite journal |author=Keltner D, Ellsworth PC, Edwards K |title=Beyond simple pessimism: effects of sadness and anger on social perception |journal=J Pers Soc Psychol |volume=64 |issue=5 |pages=740–52 |year=1993 |month=May |pmid=8505705 |url=http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/64/5/740 |doi=10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.740}}
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==Additional material==
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===Books===
  +
===Papers===
  +
  +
  +
   
 
==Further reading==
 
==Further reading==
*{{cite journal |author=Keltner D, Ellsworth PC, Edwards K |title=Beyond simple pessimism: effects of sadness and anger on social perception |journal=J Pers Soc Psychol |volume=64 |issue=5 |pages=740–52 |year=1993 |month=May |pmid=8505705 |url=http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/64/5/740 |doi=10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.740}}
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==External links==
 
* [http://www.columbia.edu/~tdp4/OBHDP1999A.pdf Raghunathan, MT Pham - Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 1999]
 
* [http://www.columbia.edu/~tdp4/OBHDP1999A.pdf Raghunathan, MT Pham - Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 1999]
  +
* [http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~akring/keltner%20&%20kring%201998.pdf Keltner et al., 1998]
   
 
{{Emotion-footer}}
 
{{Emotion-footer}}

Latest revision as of 01:01, December 27, 2009

File:A child sad that his hot dog fell on the ground.jpg
A child crying

Sadness is an emotional state characterized by feelings of disadvantage, loss, and helplessness. When sad, people often become quiet, less energetic, and withdrawn.

Sad is the negation of happy. Its synonyms are sorrow, grief, misery, and melancholy. The philosopher Baruch Spinoza defined sadness as the transfer of a person from a large perfection to a smaller one.

Sadness can be viewed as a temporary lowering of mood, whereas depression is characterized by a persistent and intense lowered mood, as well as disruption to one's ability to function in day to day matters. When sad we often go through a process called crying where we shed tears.

Studies have shown that when someone says they are angry or filled with hate that they are actually deeply sad or disappointed. Hate and anger are often ways emotionally disturbed individuals express sadness or disappointment. Due to an inability or refusal to express their true feelings of sadness and disappointment.

Pupil empathyEdit

Facial expressions of sadness with small pupils are judged significantly more intensely sad with decreasing pupil size. A person's own pupil size also mirrors this with them being smaller when viewing sad faces with small pupils. No parallel effect exists when people look at neutral, happy or angry expressions.[1] The greater degree to which a person's pupil's mirror another predicts a person's greater score on empathy.[2]

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

  1. Harrison NA, Singer T, Rotshtein P, Dolan RJ, Critchley HD (June 2006). Pupillary contagion: central mechanisms engaged in sadness processing. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 1 (1): 5–17.
  2. Harrison NA, Wilson CE, Critchley HD (November 2007). Processing of observed pupil size modulates perception of sadness and predicts empathy. Emotion 7 (4): 724–9.

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

simple:Sad cs:Deprese (psychologie)

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

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