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World Psychology: Psychology by Country · Psychology of Displaced Persons

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Dharma wheel 1

In general, rūpa (Sanskrit; Pāli; Devanagari: रुपा) is the Buddhist concept of material form, including both the body and external matter. As such, it is the first of the five skandhas or aggregates. In regards to the six sense-bases, rūpa refers specifically to visual forms.[1]

As matter, rūpa is traditionally analysed in two ways: as four elements (Pali, mahābhūta); and, as twenty-four aspects.

Four elements Edit

Existing rupa consists in the four elements:

Twenty-four aspects Edit

Rupa can also be reduced to these "perceived aspects".

See also Edit


  1. When mapping the Buddhist notions of the aggregates to sense bases, the material-form (rupa) aggregate thus includes the visual (rupa) sense-object as well as the sense objects of sound, odor, taste, touch and mental objects.

External links Edit

ko:색 (불교)
ja:色 (仏教)
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