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After studying medicine and neurology in Zurich, Loewenstein was analyzed in Berlin by Hans Sachs. He became a member of the German Psychoanalytic Society (DPG) in 1925. The same year he began to practice as a teaching analyst in Paris, where he trained a number of future analysts, including, notably, Jacques Lacan.
In 1926, he founded the first French psychoanalytic society, the Société psychanalytique de Paris (SPP), along with eight other psychoanalysts, including René Laforgue, Marie Bonaparte, Raymond de Saussure, and Angelo Hesnard. He was elected secretary of the SPP. In 1927, he participated in the creation of the Revue française de psychanalyse.
In 1930, he became a French citizen and began his studies anew - defending his thesis for a doctorate in medicine in 1935. In 1939, he was mobilized as a doctor in the French army. After the Armistice, he fled to the south of France and from there left for the United States, where he settled in New York. There he pursued a distinguished institutional career with the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA), becoming its vice president from 1965 to 1967.
- Origine du masochisme et la théorie des pulsions, 1938
- The vital or somatic drives, 1940
- Psychanalyse de l'Antisemitisme, 1952
- Zs. mit Heinz Hartmann and Ernst Kris: Notes on the theory of aggressions, 1949
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