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The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, developed by Dr. Morris Rosenberg [1], is a widely-used self-esteem measure in social science research.

The RSES is designed similar to social survey questionnaires. It is a ten-item Likert-type scale with items answered on a four-point scale — from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Five of the scale items have positively worded statements and five have negatively worded ones. The scale measures state self-esteem by asking the respondents to reflect on their current feelings. The original sample for which the scale was developed consisted of 5,024 high school juniors and seniors from 10 randomly selected schools in New York State. Rosenberg self-esteem scale is considered a reliable and valid quantitative tool for self-esteem assessment. [2]

The RSES has been translated and adapted to various languages, such as Persian [3], French [4], Chinese [5], Italian [6], Portuguese, [7] and Spanish. [8] The scale is extensively used on cross-cultural studies in up to 53 different nations. [9]

This scale are in the public domain and can be downloaded and used freely.

See alsoEdit


  1. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  2. Blascovich, Jim and Joseph Tomaka. 1993. "Measures of Self-Esteem." Pp. 115-160 in J.P. Robinson, P.R. Shaver, and L.S. Wrightsman (eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes. Third Edition. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research.
  3. Shapurian, R., Hojat, M., & Nayerahmadi, H. (1987). Psychometric characteristics and dimensionality of a Persian version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 65, 27-34.
  4. Vallieres, E.F., & Vallerand, R.J. (1990). Traduction et validation Canadienne-Française de l’Echelle de l’Estime de soi de Rosenberg. International Journal of Psychology, 25, 305-316.
  5. Cheng, S.T., & Hamid, P.N. (1995). An error in the use of translated scales: The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale for Chinese. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81, 431-434.
  6. Prezza, M., Trombaccia, F.R., & Armento, L. (1997). La scala dell´autostima di Rosenberg: traduzione e validazione italiana. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 223, 35-44
  7. Santos, P.J., & Maia, J. (2003). Análise factorial confirmatória e validaçao preliminar de uma versao portuguesa da escala de auto-estima de Rosenberg. Psicologia: Teoria, Investigaçao e Prática, 2, 253-268.
  8. José Martín-Albo, Juan L. Núñez, José G. Navarro, & Fernando Grijalvo (2007) The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Translation and Validation in University Students The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol. 10, No. 2, 458-467
  9. Schmitt, D.P., & Allik, J. (2005). Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture-specific features of global selfesteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 623-642.

External linksEdit

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