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Ritanserin

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Ritanserin chemical structure
Ritanserin

6-[2-[4-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methylidene]piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-7-methyl-[1,3]thiazolo[2,3-b]pyrimidin-5-one
IUPAC name
CAS number
87051-43-2
ATC code

[[ATC_code_|]][1]

PubChem
5074
DrugBank
[2]
Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 477.569 g/mol
Bioavailability
Metabolism
Elimination half-life
Excretion
Pregnancy category
Legal status
Routes of administration

Ritanserin is a serotonin antagonist with wide-reaching possibilities for the treatment of many neurological disorders.

When used together with typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia is able to decrease negative symptoms and adds some "atypicality" as parkinsonism is slightly decreased.

Possible effects on platelets have also been proposed.[1]

PharmacologyEdit

Ritanserin is a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist[2] (Ki = 0.39 nM). It has anxiolytic effects in vivo.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Wagner B, Schneider B, Blöchl-Daum B, et al (October 1990). Effect of ritanserin, a 5-hydroxytryptamine2-receptor antagonist, on platelet function and thrombin generation at the site of plug formation in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 48 (4): 419–23.
  2. Akhondzadeh S, Malek-Hosseini M, Ghoreishi A, Raznahan M, Rezazadeh SA (September 2008). Effect of ritanserin, a 5HT2A/2C antagonist, on negative symptoms of schizophrenia: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry.

Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Baldwin, D. S. (2000). Dysthymia: Options in pharmacotherapy. Kwai Chung, Hong Kong: Adis International Publications.


PapersEdit

  • Abi-Saab, W., Seibyl, J. P., D'Souza, D. C., Karper, L. P., Gueorgueva, R., Abi-Dargham, A., et al. (2002). Ritanserin antagonism of m-chlorophenylpiperazine effects in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics patients: Support for serotonin-2 receptor modulation of schizophrenia symptoms: Psychopharmacology Vol 162(1) Jun 2002, 55-62.
  • Amargos-Bosch, M., Lopez-Gil, X., Artigas, F., & Adell, A. (2006). Clozapine and olanzapine, but not haloperidol, suppress serotonin efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex elicited by phencyclidine and ketamine: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 9(5) Oct 2006, 565-573.
  • Bach, M., Aigner, M., & Lenz, G. (1997). Ritanserin as adjunct to fluoxetine treatment of OCD patients with psychotic features: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 30(1) Jan 1997, 28-29.
  • Bollweg, G., & Sparber, S. (1996). Ritanserin blocks DOI-altered embryonic motility and posthatch learning in the developing chicken: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 55(3) Nov 1996, 397-403.
  • Bollweg, G., Wei, Y. X., & Sparber, S. B. (1998). Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessment of ritanserin exposure in the developing chicken: Lack of toxicity at effective doses: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 60(1) May 1998, 175-181.
  • Bubenikova-Valesova, V., Stuchlik, A., Svoboda, J., Bures, J., & Vales, K. (2008). Risperidone and ritanserin but not haloperidol block effect of dizocilpine on the active allothetic place avoidance task: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 105(3) Jan 2008, 1061-1066.
  • Ciccocioppo, R., Panocka, I., Stefanini, E., Gessa, G. L., & et al. (1995). Low responsiveness to agents evoking 5-HT-sub-2 receptor-mediated behaviors in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 51(1) May 1995, 21-27.
  • Clementi, G., Valerio, C., Emmi, I., Prato, A., & et al. (1996). Behavioral effects of amylin injected intracerebroventricularly in the rat: Peptides Vol 17(4) 1996, 589-591.
  • Cornish, J. W., Maany, I., Fudala, P. J., Ehrman, R. N., Robbins, S. J., & O'Brien, C. P. (2001). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ritanserin pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Vol 61(2) Jan 2001, 183-189.
  • de Leeuw, A. S., & Westenberg, H. G. M. (2008). Hypersensitivity of 5-HT-sub-2 receptors in OCD patients an increased prolactin response after a challenge with meta-chlorophenylpiperazine and pre-treatment with ritanserin and placebo: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 42(11) Sep 2008, 894-901.
  • de Lima, M. S., Hotoph, M., & Wessely, S. (1999). The efficacy of drug treatments for dysthymia: A systematic review and meta-analysis: Psychological Medicine Vol 29(6) Nov 1999, 1273-1289.
  • de Mello Cruz, A. P., Pinheiro, G., Alves, S. H., Ferreira, G., Mendes, M., Faria, L., et al. (2005). Behavioral effects of systemically administered MK-212 are prevented by ritanserin microinfusion into the basolateral amygdala of rats exposed to the elevated plus-maze: Psychopharmacology Vol 182(3) Nov 2005, 345-354.
  • Den Boer, J. A., Vahlne, J. O., Post, P., Heck, A. H., Daubenton, F., & Olbrich, R. (2000). Ritanserin as add-on medication to neuroleptic therapy for patients with chronic or subchronic schizophrenia: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 15(3) Apr 2000, 179-189.
  • Detari, L., Szentgyorgyi, V., Hajnik, T., Szenasi, G., Gacsalyi, I., & Kukorelli, T. (1999). Differential EEG effects of the anxiolytic drugs, deramciclane (EGIS-3886), ritanserin and chlordiazepoxide in rats: Psychopharmacology Vol 142(3) Mar 1999, 318-326.
  • Ehrman, R. N., Robbins, S. J., Cornish, J. W., Childress, A. R., & O'Brien, C. P. (1996). Failure of ritanserin to block cocaine cue reactivity in humans: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Vol 42(3) Nov 1996, 167-174.
  • Fiorella, D., Helsley, S., Rabin, R. A., & Winter, J. C. (1997). Further investigations of the interactions of antipsychotics with the (-)2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) discriminative stimulus: Neuropharmacology Vol 36(10) Oct 1997, 1463-1469.
  • Fletcher, P. J. (1998). A comparison of the effects of risperidone, raclopride, and ritanserin on intravenous self-administration of d-amphetamine: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 60(1) May 1998, 55-60.
  • Gallate, J. E., & McGregor, I. S. (1999). The motivation for beer in rats: Effects of ritanserin, naloxone and SR 141716: Psychopharmacology Vol 142(3) Mar 1999, 302-308.
  • Gatch, M. B., Wallis, C. J., & Lal, H. (2000). Effects of ritanserin on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats: Alcohol Vol 21(1) May 2000, 11-17.
  • Glass, J. D., DiNardo, L. A., & Ehlen, J. C. (2000). Dorsal raphe nuclear stimulation of SCN serotonin release and circadian phase-resetting: Brain Research Vol 859(2) Mar 2000, 224-232.
  • Gonzalez, M. I., Albonetti, E., Siddiqui, A., Farabollini, F., & et al. (1996). Neonatal organizational effects of the 5-HT-sub-2 and 5-HT-sub(1A ) subsystems on adult behavior in the rat: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 54(1) May 1996, 195-203.
  • Graeff, F. G., Silva, M., Del Ben, C. M., Zuardi, A. W., Hetem, L. A. B., & Guimaraes, F. S. (2001). Comparison between two models of experimental anxiety in healthy volunteers and panic disorder patients: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 25(7-8) Dec 2001, 753-759.
  • Johnson, B. A., Chen, Y. R., Swann, A. C., Schmitz, J., Lesser, J., Ruiz, P., et al. (1997). Ritanserin in the treatment of cocaine dependence: Biological Psychiatry Vol 42(10) Nov 1997, 933-940.
  • Johnson, B. A., Jasinski, D. R., Galloway, G. P., & Kranzler, H. (1996). Ritanserin in the treatment of alcohol dependence: A multi-center clinical trial: Psychopharmacology Vol 128(2) Nov 1996, 206-215.
  • Kirov, R., & Moyanova, S. (1998). Age-related effect of ritanserin on the sleep-waking phases in rats: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 93(3-4) 1998, 265-278.
  • Kitaichi, K., Noda, Y., Miyamoto, Y., Numaguchi, A., Osawa, H., Hasegawa, T., et al. (1999). Involvement of the serotonergic neuronal system in phencyclidine-induced place aversion in rats: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 103(1) Aug 1999, 105-111.
  • Kleven, M. S., Assie, M.-B., & Koek, W. (1997). Pharmacological characterization of in vivo properties of putative mixed 5-HT-sub-1A agonist/5-HT-sub-2A/2C antagonist anxiolytics. II. Drug discrimination and behavioral observation studies in rats: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 282(2) Aug 1997, 747-759.
  • Kleven, M. S., & Koek, W. (1996). Pharmacological characterization of In Vivo properties of putative mixed 5-HT-sub( 1A) agonist/5-HT -sub(2A)/-sub(2C ) antagonist anxiolytics: I. Antipunishment effects in the pigeon: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 276(2) Feb 1996, 388-397.
  • Kruzich, P. J., & See, R. E. (2000). An evaluation of the role of 5-HT/2 receptor antagonism during subchronic antipsychotic drug administration in rats: Brain Research Vol 875(1-2) Sep 2000, 35-43.
  • Kuroki, T., Kawahara, T., Yonezawa, Y., & Tashiro, N. (1999). Effects of the serotonin-sub(2A/2C ) receptor agonist and antagonist on phencyclidine-induced dopamine release in rat medial prefrontal cortex: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 23(7) Oct 1999, 1259-1275.
  • Lucas, G., Bonhomme, N., De Deurwaerdere, P., Le Moal, M., & Spampinato, U. (1997). 8-OH-DPAT, a 5-HT-sub(1A ) agonist and ritanserin, a 5-HTsuperscript 2A/C ) antagonist, reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats independently of striatal dopamine release: Psychopharmacology Vol 131(1) May 1997, 57-63.
  • Lundberg, T., Lindstrom, L., Hartvig, P., Reibring, L., & et al. (1996). Serotonin-2 and dopamine-1 binding components of clozapine in frontal cortex and striatum in the human brain visualized by positron emission tomography: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Vol 67(1) May 1996, 1-10.
  • Mayer, G. (2003). Ritanserin Improves Sleep Quality in Narcolepsy: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 36(4) Jul 2003, 150-155.
  • Mazzola-Pomietto, P., Aulakh, C. S., Tolliver, T., & Murphy, D. L. (1997). Functional subsensitivity of 5-HT-sub(2A) and 5-HT-sub(2C) receptors mediating hyperthermia following acute and chronic treatment with 5-HT-sub(2A/2C) receptor antagonists: Psychopharmacology Vol 130(2) Mar 1997, 144-151.
  • McLean, J. H., Darby-King, A., & Hodge, E. (1996). 5-HT-sub-2 receptor involvement in conditioned olfactory learning in the neonate rat pup: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 110(6) Dec 1996, 1426-1434.
  • Naghdi, N., & Harooni, H. E. (2005). The effect of intrahippocampal injections of ritanserin (5HT-sub(2A/2C) antagonist) and granisetron (5HT-sub-3 antagonist) on learning as assessed in the spatial version of the water maze: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 157(2) Feb 2005, 205-210.
  • Naghdi, N., Rezaei, M., & Fathollahi, Y. (2006). Microinjection of ritanserin into the CA1 region of hippocampus improves scopolamine-induced amnesia in adult male rats: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 168(2) Mar 2006, 215-220.
  • Naranjo, C. A., Bremner, K. E., & Poulos, C. X. (1996). Research strategies to assess pharmacotherapies for alcoholism: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 20(4) May 1996, 543-560.
  • O'Neill, M. F., Heron-Maxwell, C. L., & Shaw, G. (1999). 5-HT-sub-2 receptor antagonism reduces hyperactivity induced by amphetamine, cocaine and MK-801 but not D-sub-1 agonist C-APB: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 63(2) Jun 1999, 237-243.
  • Overstreet, D. H., Knapp, D. J., Moy, S. S., & Breese, G. R. (2003). A 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist reduce social interaction deficit induced by multiple ethanol withdrawals in rats: Psychopharmacology Vol 167(4) Jun 2003, 344-352.
  • Panocka, I., Ciccocioppo, R., Polidori, C., & Romagnoli, S. (1996). Possible mechanism of action for the attenuation of ethanol intake induced by ritanserin in rats: Psychopharmacology Vol 128(2) Nov 1996, 181-190.
  • Pitchot, W., Wauthy, J., Legros, J.-J., & Ansseau, M. (2004). Hormonal and temperature responses to flesinoxan in normal volunteers: An antagonist study: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 14(2) Mar 2004, 151-155.
  • Poyurovsky, M., Epshtein, S., Fuchs, C., Schneidman, M., Weizman, R., & Weizman, A. (2003). Efficacy of low-dose mirtazapine in neuroleptic-induced akathisia: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 23(3) Jun 2003, 305-308.
  • Prinssen, E. P. M., Kleven, M. S., & Koek, W. (1996). Effects of dopamine antagonists in a two-way active avoidance procedure in rats: Interactions with 8-OH-DPAT, ritanserin, and prazosin: Psychopharmacology Vol 128(2) Nov 1996, 191-197.
  • Raghavendra, V., & Kulkarni, S. K. (2000). Melatonin reversal of DOI-induced hypophagia in rats: Possible mechanism by suppressing 5-HT-sub(2A ) receptor-mediated activation of HPA axis: Brain Research Vol 860(1-2) Mar 2000, 112-118.
  • Rex, A., Voigt, P., & Fink, H. (1998). Pharmacological evaluation of a modified open-field test sensitive to anxiolytic drugs: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 59(3) Mar 1998, 677-683.
  • Sanchez, H., & Velazquez-Martinez, D. N. (2001). Discriminative stimulus properties of indorenate, a 5-HT-sub(1A), 5-HT-sub(1B ) and 5-HT-sub(2C ) agonist: A study in rats: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 15(1) 2001, 29-36.
  • Schenk, S. (2000). Effects of the serotonin 5-HT-sub-2 antagonist, ritanserin, and the serotonin 5-HT-sub(1A ) antagonist, WAY 100635, on cocaine-seeking in rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 67(2) Oct 2000, 363-369.
  • Schrott, L. M., Getty, M. E., Wacnik, P. W., & Sparber, S. B. (1998). Open-field and LPS-induced sickness behavior in young chickens: Effects of embryonic cocaine and/or ritanserin: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 61(1) Sep 1998, 9-17.
  • Shadach, E., Gaisler, I., Schiller, D., & Weiner, I. (2000). The latent inhibition model dissociates between clozapine, haloperidol, and ritanserin: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 23(2) Aug 2000, 151-161.
  • Silvestre, J. S., Palacios, J. M., Fernandez, A. G., & O'Neill, M. F. (1998). Comparison of effects of a range of 5-HT receptor modulators on consumption and preference for a sweetened ethanol solution in rats: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 12(2) 1998, 168-176.
  • Skrebuhhova-Malmros, T., Pruus, K., Rudissaar, R., Allikmets, L., & Matto, V. (2000). The serotonin 5-HT-sub(2A ) receptor subtype does not mediate apomorphine-induced aggressive behaviour in male Wistar rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 67(2) Oct 2000, 339-343.
  • Soleimannejad, E., Semnanian, S., Fathollahi, Y., & Naghdi, N. (2006). Microinjection of ritanserin into the dorsal hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus decrease nociceptive behavior in adult male rat: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 168(2) Mar 2006, 221-225.
  • Stefanski, R., & Goldberg, S. R. (1997). Serotonin 5-HT-sub-2 receptor antagonists: Potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: CNS Drugs Vol 7(5) May 1997, 388-409.
  • Sumova, A., Maywood, E. S., Selvage, D., & Ebling, F. J. P. (1996). Serotonergic antagonists impair arousal-induced phase shifts of the circadian system of the Syrian hamster: Brain Research Vol 709(1) Feb 1996, 88-96.
  • Takeuchi, H., Ishigooka, J., Kobayashi, K., Watanabe, S., & Miura, S. (1998). Study on the suitability of a rat model for tardive dyskinesia and the preventive effects of various drugs: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 22(4) May 1998, 679-691.
  • van Laar, M., Volkerts, E., & Verbaten, M. (2001). Subchronic effects of the GABA-agonist lorazepam and the 5-HT-sub(2A/2C ) antagonist ritanserin on driving performance, slow wave sleep and daytime sleepiness in healthy volunteers: Psychopharmacology Vol 154(2) Mar 2001, 189-197.
  • Viola, A. U., Brandenberger, G., Toussaint, M., Bouhours, P., Macher, J. P., & Luthringer, R. (2002). Ritanserin, a serotonin-2 receptor antagonist, improves ultradian sleep rhythmicity in young poor sleepers: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 113(3) Mar 2002, 429-434.
  • Wadenberg, M. L., Samli, P., Jimenez, P., Svensson, T., & Ahlenius, S. (1996). Enhancement of antipsychotic-like properties of the dopamine D-sub-2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, by the additional treatment with the 5-HT-sub-2 receptor blocking agent, ritanserin, in the rat: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 6(4) Nov 1996, 305-310.
  • Welsh, S. E., Kachelries, W. J., Romano, A. G., Simansky, K. J., & Harvey, J. A. (1998). Effects of LSD, ritanserin, 8-OH-DPAT and lisuride on classical conditioning in the rabbit: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 59(2) Feb 1998, 469-475.
  • Welsh, S. E., Romano, A. G., & Harvey, J. A. (1998). Effects of serotonin 5-HT-sub(2A/2C ) antagonists on associative learning in the rabbit: Psychopharmacology Vol 137(2) May 1998, 157-163.
  • West, W. B., Lou, A., Pechersky, K., Chachich, M. E., & Appel, J. B. (2000). Antagonism of a PCP drug discrimination by hallucinogens and related drugs: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 22(6) Jun 2000, 618-625.
  • West, W. B., Luo, A., Pechersky, K., Chachich, M. E., & Appel, J. B. (2000). "Antagonism of a PCP drug discrimination by hallucinogens and related drugs": Erratum: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 23(4) Oct 2000, 476.
  • Wiesbeck, G. A., Weijers, H. G., Chick, J., & Boening, J. (2000). The effects of ritanserin on mood, sleep, vigilance, clinical impression, and social functioning in alcohol-dependent individuals: Alcohol and Alcoholism Vol 35(4) Jul-Aug 2000, 384-389.
  • Wiesbeck, G. A., Weijers, H. G., Chick, J., Naranjo, C. A., & Boening, J. (1999). Ritanserin in relapse prevention in abstinent alcoholics: Results from a placebo-controlled double-blind international multicenter trial: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 23(2) Feb 1999, 230-235.
  • Zangrossi, H., Jr., Viana, M. B., Zanoveli, J., Bueno, C., Nogueira, R. L., & Graeff, F. G. (2001). Serotonergic regulation of inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape in the rat elevated T-maze: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 25(7-8) Dec 2001, 637-645.
  • Zhang, J.-J., Okutani, F., Yagi, F., Inoue, S., & Kaba, H. (2000). Facilitatory effect of Ritanserin is mediated by dopamine D-sub-1 receptors on olfactory learning in young rats: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 37(4) Dec 2000, 246-252.

DissertationsEdit

  • Rolandi, W. G. (1997). Investigating the yohimbine-lsd false positive: A computer-assisted comparative analysis of putative antagonists. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.


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