Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Riots are a form of civil disorders characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of violence, vandalism or other crime. While individuals may attempt to lead or control a riot, riots are typically chaotic and exhibit herd behavior.
Riots often occur in reaction to a perceived grievance or out of dissent. Historically, riots have occurred due to poor working or living conditions, government oppression, taxation or conscription, conflicts between races or religions (see race riot and pogrom), or even the outcome of a sporting event. Some claim[How to reference and link to summary or text] that rioters are motivated by a rejection of or frustration with legal channels through which to air their grievances.
Riots typically involve vandalism and the destruction of private and public property. The specific property to be targeted varies depending on the cause of the riot and the inclinations of those involved. Targets can include shops, cars, restaurants, state-owned institutions, and religious buildings.
In some places, rioters have become semi-professionals, travelling to the sites of likely riots. These rioters are known as firms. This is particularly noted in sports-related riots in Europe. For example, France, Poland and England commonly have riots related to football (soccer) matches. Rioters have become quite sophisticated at understanding and withstanding the tactics used by police in such situations. Manuals for successful rioting are available on the Internet. These manuals also encourage rioters to get the press involved, as there is more safety with the cameras rolling. There is also more attention. Citizens with video cameras may also have an effect on both rioters and police.
Riots are typically dealt with by the police (as riot control), although methods differ from country to country. Tactics and weapons used can include attack dogs, water cannons, plastic bullets, rubber bullets, pepper spray, and flexible baton rounds. Many police forces, such as the London Metropolitan Police Service, have dedicated divisions to deal with public order situations.
The policing of riots has been marred by incidents in which police have been accused of instigating or provoking rioting or crowd violence: also, while the weapons described above are officially designated as non-lethal, a number of people have allegedly died or been injured as a result of their use.
Rioters often make use of various tactics to counter the police, including gas masks (to protect against chemical weapons), projectiles such as rocks, bottles and molotov cocktails, firecrackers to scare away attack dogs, and the removal of police weapons (e.g. batons, shields). Rioting, particularly in economically-disadvantaged areas, is often accompanied by looting.
In N.Ireland both the army and police were used to subdue rioting, using all types of equipment- water cannon rubber/plastic bullits to stop and inflict injury on the perceived rioters. The history of civil unrest had also bred a new type of activity in which children would use the act of rioting as a form of escape from boredom. A leading community activist Mary Montague coined, the now used phrase to describe this as, "recreational rioting". She identified as both dangerous and creating tension. www.tidestraining.org is a organisation that helps people and groups to manage conflict.[attribution needed][How to reference and link to summary or text]
Laws against riots
England and Wales
Under English law, a riot is defined by the Public Order Act 1986 as twelve or more persons who "together use or threaten unlawful violence for a common purpose and the conduct of them (taken together) is such as would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his personal safety". A single person can be liable for an offence of riot when they use violence provided that it can be shown there were at least twelve present using or threatening violence. The violence can be against the person or against property. This carries the possibility of a fine and a sentence of up to ten years' imprisonment.
If there are fewer than twelve people present, the lesser offence of "Violent Disorder" is charged, for which there is a requirement for at least three persons to use or threaten unlawful violence together. This is defined similarly to riot, but no common purpose is required.
In the past, The Riot Act had to be read by an official - with the wording exactly correct - before any policing action could take place. If the group did not disperse after the act was read, lethal force could legally be used against the crowd.
Current English Law
In English Law Riot forms part of the Public Order Act 1986 under section 1.
The Public Order Act 1986 s.1 states:
1) Where twelve or more persons who are present together use or threaten unlawful violence for a common purpose and the conduct of them (taken together) is such as would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his personal safety, each of the persons using unlawful violence for the common purpose is guilty of riot.
2) It is immaterial whether or not the twelve or more use or threaten unlawful violence simultaneously.
3) The common purpose may be inferred from conduct.
4) No person of reasonable firmness need actually be, or be likely to be, present at the scene.
5) Riot may be committed in private as well as in public places.
- Arrestable Offence, changed to an indictable offence by the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005)
- Triable on indictment (Can be brought before a Magistrates' Court or Crown court)
- Ten years imprisonment and/or a fine
Under United States federal law, a riot is defined as A public disturbance involving (1) an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons, which act or acts shall constitute a clear and present danger of, or shall result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual or (2) a threat or threats of the commission of an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons having, individually or collectively, the ability of immediate execution of such threat or threats, where the performance of the threatened act or acts of violence would constitute a clear and present danger of, or would result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual. 18 U.S.C. §2102.
As every state in the United States has its own laws (subject to the Supremacy Clause), each has its own definition of 'riot.' In New York State, for example, the term 'riot' is not defined explicitly, but under § 240.08 of the N.Y. Penal Law, A person is guilty of inciting to riot when he urges ten or more persons to engage in tumultuous and violent conduct of a kind likely to create public alarm.
The worst riots in United States history with respect to lives lost took place during the Civil War when immigrant factory workers forcibly resisted the federal government's military draft, the New York Draft Riots. These riots were graphically depicted in the movie Gangs of New York. In the 20th century, the 1992 Los Angeles riots were regarded as the worst in recent U.S. history. The 1968 Democratic National Convention, however, saw the most well-remembered riots in recent US history and were a strong influence towards the eventual American withdrawal from Vietnam at the end of the Vietnam War. The 2000 Democratic National Convention protest activity made headlines, including the Lakers riot. Also notable were riots in response to the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. across numerous American cities, as well as the recent anarchist and anti-globalization riots of the last decade such as the Seattle protests of the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 and the 2005 Toledo Riot in Toledo, Ohio.
The Sydney Riot of 1879, is one of the earliest riots at an international cricket match. Riots have become major news generators, including Aboriginal riots in response to the death of an Aboriginal boy, and most recently the 2005 summer race riots. These riots took place on the beaches of the eastern Sydney suburbs, most prominently Cronulla.
The Nørrebro riots followed the selling of Ungdomshuset in Copenhagen in Denmark. People from Sweden, Germany and the United Kingdom participated in the riots. In total 750 people were arrested during the fighting; 140 of these foreigners.
Riots also broke out in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden from the 14th to the 16th of June 2001. A total of 53 police officers and 90 vandals and demonstrators were hurt during the many riots that was going on between these days. The reasons for the riot were the EU summit that took place in Gothenburg and the visit of USA's President George W Bush.
In October 2005 and again in November 2007, immigrant youth rioted in the poor Paris suburbs of Clichy-sous-Bois  and Villiers-le-Bel , respectively, each time in reaction to the deaths of North African youth at the hands of police.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals and labour activists in the People's Republic of China between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. The demonstrations centred on Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Government retaliation was often violent and riots broke out in affected regions.
The Jakarta riots of May 1998 were a series of riots against ethnic Chinese Indonesians in Jakarta and Surakarta, Indonesia.There were also hundreds of documented accounts of ethnic Chinese women being raped, tortured and killed.  Human Rights groups have determined that the Indonesian military was involved in the riots, which degenerated into a pogrom. 
The Partition of India was a traumatic event in South Asian history that followed the independence of the region from British colonial rule. The ensuing riots resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Muslims, with Hindus and Sikhs being massacred in the newly formed Pakistan, which resulted in Muslims being killed in India.
For the whole month of November 1984 Sikhs were hunted down and killed, raped or beaten. These events occurred after Prime minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards. Innocent Sikh men were burnt alive while women were gang raped by Hindu mobs, while reprisals against Hindus were organized by the Sikh community. The death toll is uncertain. Estimates range from 2,000 to 250,000 (it is estimated 2,000 people were killed in New Delhi alone).
2002 Gujarat violence refers to incidents that took place in the state of Gujarat in India in the year 2002 involving a flare-up of tensions between Muslims and Hindus, after a train carrying Hindu pilgrims was burned by Muslim extremists in Godhra .
- Collective behavior
- Types of Riot: Race riot, police riot, prison riot, student riot, hooliganism, street fighting
- Violence in sports
- Applegate, Col. Rex. Riot Control: Materiel and Techniques, Paladin Press. ISBN 9780873642088.
- Beene, Capt. Charles. Riot Prevention and Control: A Police Officer's Guide to Managing Violent and Nonviolent Crowds, Paladin Press. ISBN 1581605188.
- Bessel, Richard Emsley, Clive. Patterns of Provocation: Police and Public Disorder, Berghahn Books. ISBN 1571812288.
- Hernon, Ian. Riot!: Civil Insurrection from Peterloo to the Present Day, Pluto Press. ISBN 0745325386.
- Waddington, P.A.J.. The Strong Arm of the Law: Armed and Public Order Policing, Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198273592.
Alexander, C. (2004). Imagining the Asian gang: Ethnicity, masculinity and youth after 'the riots': Critical Social Policy Vol 24(4) Nov 2004, 526-549.
- Armstrong, E. A., & Crage, S. M. (2006). Movements and Memory: The Making of the Stonewall Myth: American Sociological Review Vol 71(5) Oct 2006, 724-751.
- Baron, R. A., & Ransberger, V. M. (1978). Ambient temperature and the occurrence of collective violence: The "long, hot summer" revisited: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 36(4) Apr 1978, 351-360.
- Becker, G. M. (1968). Riots and reevaluation: American Psychologist Vol 23(8) Aug 1968, 584-585.
- Bellisfield, G. (1972). White attitudes toward racial integration and the urban riots of the 1960's: Public Opinion Quarterly Vol 36(4) Win 1972-1973, 579-584.
- Berg, B. L., True, E. J., & Gertz, M. G. (1984). Police, riots, and alienation: Journal of Police Science & Administration Vol 12(2) Jun 1984, 186-190.
- Bergesen, A., & Herman, M. (1998). Immigration, race, and riot: The 1992 Los Angeles uprising: American Sociological Review Vol 63(1) Feb 1998, 39-54.
- Betz, M. (1974). Riots and welfare: Are they related? : Social Problems Vol 21(3) 1974, 345-355.
- Bhat, A. V., & et al. (1984). The causes of and solutions for rioting in Britain in the summer of 1981: International Journal of Social Psychiatry Vol 30(1-2) Spr 1984, 4-8.
- Bhat, A. V., & et al. (1984). Psychiatric workers as emotional beings: The emotional reactions of staff following the Brixton riots: International Journal of Social Psychiatry Vol 30(1-2) Spr 1984, 9-14.
- Bohstedt, J. (1994). The dynamics of riots: Escalation and diffusion/contagion. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Bowenkamp, C. (1995). The Los Angeles civil unrest: Implications for future mental health counseling interventions: Journal of Mental Health Counseling Vol 17(3) Jul 1995, 301-311.
- Brown, V. B., Melchior, L. A., Reback, C., & Huba, G. J. (1994). Psychological functioning and substance abuse before and after the 1992 Los Angeles riot in a community sample of women: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Vol 26(4) Oct-Dec 1994, 431-437.
- Bryan, M. E. (1978). The social psychology of riot participation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Burbeck, S. L., Raine, W. J., & Stark, M. J. (1978). The dynamics of riot growth: An epidemiological approach: Journal of Mathematical Sociology Vol 6(1) 1978, 1-22.
- Carlsmith, J. M., & Anderson, C. A. (1979). Ambient temperature and the occurrence of collective violence: A new analysis: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 37(3) Mar 1979, 337-344.
- Carrabine, E. (2005). Prison riots, social order and the problem of legitimacy: British Journal of Criminology Vol 45(6) Nov 2005, 896-913.
- Carter, G. L. (1986). In the narrows of the 1960s U.S. Black rioting: Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 30(1) Mar 1986, 115-127.
- Carter, G. L. (1990). Black attitudes and the 1960s Black riots: An aggregate-level analysis of the Kerner Commission's "15 cities" data: Sociological Quarterly Vol 31(2) 1990, 269-286.
- Carter, G. L. (1992). Hispanic rioting during the civil rights era: Sociological Forum Vol 7(2) Jun 1992, 301-322.
- Clark, K. B., & Barker, J. (1945). The zoot effect in personality: a race riot participant: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 40(2) Apr 1945, 143-148.
- Collins, A. V. (2007). "All hell broke loose": A comparative analysis of American race riots from the progressive era through World War II. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Colvin, M. (1982). The 1980 New Mexico prison riot: Social Problems Vol 29(5) Jun 1982, 449-463.
- Cookson, H., Rushton, R., & Thornton, D. (1991). Anatomy of a riot: Prelude and participation: Issues in Criminological & Legal Psychology Vol 1(17) 1991, 50-57.
- Coudreaut, M. F., Frye, M. A., & Pynoos, R. (1995). Civil unrest and exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms: A case series: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 183(2) Feb 1995, 109-111.
- Cramer, J. A. (1974). Factors associated with the intention of National Guardsmen to participate in the control of civil disorder: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Cryns, A. G. (1975). Public letter writing in response to campus unrest and prison riots: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 31(3) Mar 1975, 516-521.
- Cunneen, C., & Lynch, R. (1988). The social meanings of conflict in riots at the Australian Grand Prix motorcycle races: Leisure Studies Vol 7(1) Jan 1988, 1-19.
- Davis, D. M. (2007). The Los Angeles riots revisited: The changing face of the Los Angeles Unified School District and the challenge for educators: Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association Vol 42(3) 2007, 213-229.
- Davis, E. E., & Fine, M. (1975). The effects of the findings of the U.S. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders: An experimental study of attitude change: Human Relations Vol 28(3) Apr 1975, 209-227.
- Deroches, F. J. (1983). Anomie: Two theories of prison riots: Canadian Journal of Criminology Vol 25(2) Apr 1983, 173-190.
- Desroches, F. (1974). Patterns in prison riots: Canadian Journal of Criminology & Corrections Vol 16(4) Oct 1974, 332-351.
- Deutsch, M. (1969). Review of Riots and Rebellion: Civil Violence in the Urban Community: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 14 (7), Jul, 1969.
- Deutsch, M. (1973). Review of Collective Behavior. 2nd ed: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 18 (5), May, 1973.
- Dinitz, S. (1991). Barbarism in the New Mexico State Prison riot: The search for meaning a decade later. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.
- Dynes, R. R., Quarantelli, E. L., & Ross, J. L. (1974). Police perspectives and behavior in a campus disturbance: Journal of Police Science & Administration Vol 2(3) Sep 1974, 344-351.
- Elkin, F., Halpern, G., & Cooper, A. (1962). Leadership in a student mob: Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Vol 16(3) 1962, 199-201.
- Engels, J. (2005). Reading the Riot Act: Rhetoric, Psychology, and Counter-Revolutionary Discourse in Shays's Rebellion, 1786-1787: Quarterly Journal of Speech Vol 91(1) Feb 2005, 63-88.
- Eyck, T. A. T. (2001). Does information matter? A research note on information technologies and political protest: Social Science Journal Vol 38(1) 2001, 147-160.
- Farver, J. A. M., & Frosch, D. L. (1996). L.A. stories: Aggression in preschoolers' spontaneous narratives after the riots of 1992: Child Development Vol 67(1) Feb 1996, 19-32.
- Firestone, J. M. (1972). Theory of the riot process: American Behavioral Scientist Vol 15(6) Jul 1972, 859-882.
- Fishbain, D. A., Aldrich, T. E., Goldberg, M., & Duncan, R. C. (1991). Impact of a humanmade disaster on the utilization pattern of a psychiatric emergency service: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 179(3) Mar 1991, 162-166.
- Fontaine, R. (2007). Cross-cultural management: Six perspectives: Cross Cultural Management Vol 14(2) 2007, 125-135.
- Fraiberg, S. H. (1947). Studies in group symptom formation: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 17 1947, 278-289.
- Goldstone, J. A., & Useem, B. (1999). Prison riots as microrevolutions: An extension of state-centered theories of revolution: American Journal of Sociology Vol 104(4) Jan 1999, 985-1029.
- Gonzalez, J. C., & Portillos, E. L. (2007). The undereducation and overcriminalization of U.S. Latinas/os: A post-Los Angeles riots LatCrit analysis: Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association Vol 42(3) 2007, 247-266.
- Govea, R. M., & West, G. T. (1981). Riot contagion in Latin America, 1949-1963: Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 25(2) Jun 1981, 349-368.
- Graeve, C. M., DeLisi, M., & Hochstetler, A. (2007). Prison rioters: Exploring infraction characteristics, risk factors, social correlates, and criminal careers: Psychological Reports Vol 100(2) Apr 2007, 407-419.
- Greenley, J. R., Gillespie, D. P., & Lindenthal, J. J. (1975). A race riot's effect on psychological symptoms: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 32(9) Sep 1975, 1189-1195.
- Hanson, R. F., Kilpatrick, D. G., Freedy, J. R., & Saunders, B. E. (1995). Los Angeles County after the 1992 civil disturbances: Degree of exposure and impact on mental health: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 63(6) Dec 1995, 987-996.
- Hanson, R. F., Smith, D. W., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Freedy, J. R. (2000). Crime-related fears and demographic diversity in Los Angeles county after the 1992 civil disturbances: Journal of Community Psychology Vol 28(6) Nov 2000, 607-623.
- Harvey-Lintz, T. (1995). Psychological effects of the 1992 Los Angeles riots: Post traumatic stress symptomatology among law enforcement officers. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Harvey-Lintz, T., & Tidwell, R. (1997). Effects of the 1992 Los Angeles civil unrest: Post traumatic stress disorder symptomatology among law enforcement officers: Social Science Journal Vol 34(2) 1997, 171-183.
- Hayes-Bautista, D. E., Schink, W. O., & Hayes-Bautista, M. (1993). Latinos and the 1992 Los Angeles riots: A behavioral sciences perspective: Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences Vol 15(4) Nov 1993, 427-448.
- Horowitz, D. L. (2001). The deadly ethnic riot. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
- Houghton, D. P. (1998). Historical analogies and the cognitive dimension of domestic policymaking: Political Psychology Vol 19(2) Jun 1998, 279-303.
- Huber, J. P., & Unger, P. (1989). Reactive psychiatric pathologies in the aftermath of a prison riot: Perspectives Psychiatriques Vol 28(19) 1989, 248-251.
- Hussain, Y., & Bagguley, P. (2005). Citizenship, Ethnicity and Identity: British Pakistanis after the 2001 'Riots': Sociology Vol 39(3) Jul 2005, 407-425.
- Jacobs, B. D. (1989). The Brixton riots: London 1981. Springfield, IL, England: Charles C Thomas, Publisher.
- Jenkins, Y. M. (2004). From tragedy to triumph: The Tulsa race riot. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Jones, E. (1968). Review of Riots in Rourkela: A Psychological Study: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 13 (10), Oct, 1968.
- Jones, E. E. (1973). Review of The Violent Society: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 18 (9), Sep, 1973.
- Jones, J. M., & McClintock, C. G. (1972). People Killing People in the Streets: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 17 (2), Feb, 1972.
- Kaplowitz, S. A., & Campo, S. (2004). Drinking, Alcohol Policy, and Attitudes Toward a Campus Riot: Journal of College Student Development Vol 45(5) Sep-Oct 2004, 501-516.
- Kapsis, R. E. (1976). Continuities in delinquency and riot patterns in Black residential areas: Social Problems Vol 23(5) Jun 1976, 567-580.
- Katz, I. (1969). Of Riots and Revolution: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 14 (3), Mar, 1969.
- Kaufman, E. (1973). Can comprehensive mental health care be provided in an overcrowded prison system? : Journal of Psychiatry & Law Vol 1(2) Sum 1973, 243-262.
- Kim-Goh, M., Suh, C., Blake, D. D., & Hiley-Young, B. (1995). Psychological impact of the Los Angeles riots on Korean-American victims: Implications for treatment: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol 65(1) Jan 1995, 138-146.
- King, M., & Waddington, D. (2004). Coping with Disorder? The Changing Relationship between Police Public Order Strategy and Practice--A Critical Analysis of the Burnley Riot: Policing & Society Vol 14(2) Jun 2004, 118-137.
- Kroon, M. B., Van Kreveld, D., & Rabbie, J. M. (1991). Police intervention in riots: The role of accountability and group norms: A field experiment: Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology Vol 1(4) Nov 1991, 249-267.
- Lachman, S. J. (1993). Psychology and riots: Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior Vol 30(3-4) 1993, 16-23.
- Lachman, S. J. (1996). Psychological perspective for a theory of behavior during riots: Psychological Reports Vol 79(3, Pt 1) Dec 1996, 739-744.
- Lavalekar, A. (2006). The Impact of Communal Riots on Children's Minds: Psychological Studies Vol 51(4) Oct 2006, 283-288.
- Lester, D. (1978). Internal conflict and personal violence: A cross-national study of suicide and homicide: International Journal of Group Tensions Vol 8(3-4) 1978, 68-70.
- Lester, D. (1997). Black riots and Black suicide rates: Psychological Reports Vol 81(3, Pt 2) Dec 1997, 1134.
- Lewis, J. M. (1989). A value-added analysis of the Heysel Stadium soccer riot: Current Psychology: Research & Reviews Vol 8(1) Spr 1989, 15-29.
- Linger, D. T. (1993). The hegemony of discontent: American Ethnologist Vol 20(1) Feb 1993, 3-24.
- Litton, I., & Potter, J. (1985). Social representations in the ordinary explanation of a "riot." European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 15(4) Oct-Dec 1985, 371-388.
- Mahan, V. J. (2002). 1943--One page from Mexican American history: A psychological analysis of oppression and resistance: Journal of Hispanic Higher Education Vol 1(4) Oct 2002, 283-297.
- Maki, M. T., Iglehart, A. P., Nunn, J. A., & Nakamura, C. R. (1995). Los Angeles civil unrest: An interorganization response to crisis: Crisis Intervention & Time-Limited Treatment Vol 1(3) 1995, 191-202.
- Mamsar, M. K. (1985). An analytical study of the phenomenon of sports arena riots in the Arab world: Dirasat Vol 12(11) Nov 1985, 257-314.
- Marohn, R. C., Dalle-Molle, D., Offer, D., & Ostrov, E. (1973). A hospital riot: Its determinants and implications for treatment: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 130(6) Jun 1973, 631-636.
- Mason, T. D. (1982). Individual participation in collective racial violence: A rational choice synthesis: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Mason, T. D., & Murtagh, J. A. (1985). Who riots? An empirical examination of the "new urban Black" versus the social marginality hypotheses: Political Behavior Vol 7(4) 1985, 352-373.
- Matei, S. A., & Ball-Rokeach, S. (2005). Watts, the 1965 Los Angeles Riots, and the Communicative Construction of the Fear Epicenter of Los Angeles: Communication Monographs Vol 72(3) Sep 2005, 301-323.
- McCauley, C. (2006). Review of Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India: Political Psychology Vol 27(4) Aug 2006, 635-638.
- McConahay, J. B. (1977). Review of Urban problems: Psychological inquiries: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 22 (4), Apr, 1977.
- McEnrue, M. P. (1993). Managing diversity: Los Angeles before and after the riots: Organizational Dynamics Vol 21(3) Win 1993, 18-29.
- McGoldrick, S. K., & Simpson, P. (2007). Violence, police and riots in New Orleans political culture: 1854-1874: Journal of Historical Sociology Vol 20(1-2) Mar 2007, 72-101.
- McPhail, C. (1994). The dark side of purpose: Individual and collective violence in riots: Sociological Quarterly Vol 35(1) Feb 1994, 1-32.
- McPhail, C., & Wohlstein, R. T. (1983). Individual and collective behaviors within gatherings, demonstrations, and riots: Annual Review of Sociology Vol 9 1983, 579-600.
- Mehta, D. (2006). Collective Violence, Public Spaces, and the Unmaking of Men: Men and Masculinities Vol 9(2) Oct 2006, 204-225.
- Mehta, K., Vankar, G., & Patel, V. (2005). Validity of the construct of post-traumatic stress disorder in a low-income country: Interview study of women in Gujarat, India: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 187(6) Dec 2005, 585-586.
- Miller, T., & Ahluwalia, P. (2006). Editorial Note--Crisis in Culture: Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture Vol 12(2) Mar 2006, 107-108.
- Moinat, S. M., Raine, W. J., Burbeck, S. L., & Davison, K. K. (1972). Black ghetto residents as rioters: Journal of Social Issues Vol 28(4) 1972, 45-62.
- Monti, D. J. (1979). Patterns of conflict preceding the 1964 riots: Harlem and Bedford-Stuyvesant: Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 23(1) Mar 1979, 41-69.
- Morgan, W. R., & Clark, T. N. (1973). The causes of racial disorders: A grievance-level explanation: American Sociological Review Vol 38(5) Oct 1973, 611-624.
- Moss, C. S., Hosford, R. E., Anderson, W. R., & Petracca, M. (1977). Personality variables of Blacks participating in a prison riot: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 45(4) Aug 1977, 505-512.
- Murtagh, J. A. (1983). Collective racial violence as a rational choice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Murty, K. S., Roebuck, J. B., & Armstrong, G. R. (1994). The Black community's reactions to the 1992 Los Angeles riot: Deviant Behavior Vol 15(1) Jan-Mar 1994, 85-104.
- Myers, D. J. (1997). Racial rioting in the 1960s: An event history analysis of local conditions: American Sociological Review Vol 62(1) Feb 1997, 94-112.
- Myers, D. J. (2000). The diffusion of collective violence: Infectiousness, susceptibility, and mass media networks: American Journal of Sociology Vol 106(1) Jul 2000, 173-208.
- Myers, D. J., & Caniglia, B. S. (2004). All the Rioting That's Fit to Print: Selection Effects in National Newspaper Coverage of Civil Disorders, 1968-1969: American Sociological Review Vol 69(4) Aug 2004, 519-543.
- Nevarez, C., & Wood, J. L. (2007). Developing urban school leaders: Building on solutions 15 years after the Los Angeles riots: Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association Vol 42(3) 2007, 266-280.
- Olzak, S., Shanahan, S., & McEneaney, E. H. (1996). Poverty, segregation, and race riots: 1960 to 1993: American Sociological Review Vol 61(4) Aug 1996, 590-613.
- Papa, L., & Lassiter, L. E. (2003). The Muncie race riots of 1967: Representing community memory through public performance, and collaborative ethnography between faculty, students, and the local community: Journal of Contemporary Ethnography Vol 32(2) Apr 2003, 147-165.
- Pepinsky, H. E. (1975). A Race Riot as a Non-Event: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 20 (2), Feb, 1975.
- Peroff, K., & Hewitt, C. (1980). Rioting in Northern Ireland: The effects of different policies: Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 24(4) Dec 1980, 593-612.
- Ponting, J. R., Fitzpatrick, J., & Quarantelli, E. L. (1975). Police perceptions of riot participants and dynamics: International Journal of Group Tensions Vol 5(3) Sep 1975, 163-170.
- Potter, J., & Reicher, S. (1987). Discourses of community and conflict: The organization of social categories in accounts of a "riot." British Journal of Social Psychology Vol 26(1) Mar 1987, 25-40.
- Raschka, L. B. (1976). Lynching: A psychiatrist's view: The Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal / La Revue de l'Association des psychiatres du Canada Vol 21(8) Dec 1976, 577-580.
- Reicher, S., & Potter, J. (1985). Psychological theory as intergroup perspective: A comparative analysis of "scientific" and "lay" accounts of crowd events: Human Relations Vol 38(2) Feb 1985, 167-189.
- Reicher, S. D. (1984). The St. Pauls' riot: An explanation of the limits of crowd action in terms of a social identity model: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 14(1) Jan-Mar 1984, 1-21.
- Reicher, S. D. (2001). The St. Pauls' riot: An explanation of the limits of crowd action in terms of a social identity model. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
- Rosenfeld, M. J. (1997). Celebration, politics, selective looting and riots: A micro level study of the Bulls riot of 1992 in Chicago: Social Problems Vol 44(4) Nov 1997, 483-502.
- Rosenthal, U. (1989). A compulsive crisis: The inauguration of Queen Beatrix. Springfield, IL, England: Charles C Thomas, Publisher.
- Ruddell, R., Thomas, M. O., & Way, L. B. (2005). Breaking the chain: Confronting issueless college town disturbances and riots: Journal of Criminal Justice Vol 33(6) Nov-Dec 2005, 549-560.
- Russell, G. W. (1995). Personalities in the crowd: Those who would escalate a sports riot: Aggressive Behavior Vol 21(2) 1995, 91-100.
- Russell, G. W. (2004). Sport riots: A social-psychological review: Aggression and Violent Behavior Vol 9(4) Jul 2004, 353-378.
- Russell, G. W., & Arms, R. L. (2001). Calming troubled waters: Peacemakers in a sports riot: Aggressive Behavior Vol 27(4) 2001, 292-296.
- Russell, G. W., Arms, R. L., & Mustonen, A. (1999). When cooler heads prevail: Peacemakers in a sports riot: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Vol 40(3) Sep 1999, 153-155.
- Russell, G. W., & Mustonen, A. (1998). Peacemakers: Those who would intervene to quell a sports riot: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 24(3) Mar 1998, 335-339.
- Sasao, T., & Chun, C.-A. (1994). After the Sa-i-gu (April 29) Los Angeles Riots: Correlates of subjective well-being in the Korean-American community: Journal of Community Psychology Vol 22(2) Apr 1994, 136-152.
- Schmidt, C. F. (1972). Multidimensional scaling analysis of the printed media's explanations of the riots of the summer of 1967: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 24(1) Oct 1972, 59-67.
- Schneider, H. J. (1992). Criminology of riots: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology Vol 36(3) Fal 1992, 173-186.
- Schram, S. F., & Turbett, J. P. (1983). Civil disorder and the welfare explosion: A two-step process: American Sociological Review Vol 48(3) Jun 1983, 408-414.
- Sharp, E. B. (2006). Policing Urban America: A New Look at the Politics of Agency Size: Social Science Quarterly Vol 87(2) Jun 2006, 291-307.
- Shelley, D., & Cohen, D. (1987). Explaining social disturbances: Riots: Learning from the past, learning from the states. New York, NY: Croom Helm.
- Slone, M. (2003). The Nazareth Riots: Arab and Jewish Israeli Adolescents Pay a Different Psychological Price for Participation: Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 47(6) Dec 2003, 817-836.
- Slovak, J. S. (1983). Violence in the city: Empirical bases for a collective working image: Journal of Criminal Justice Vol 11(4) 1983, 301-315.
- Smith, J. Q. (1980). The prediction of prison riots: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology Vol 33(2) Nov 1980, 151-160.
- Stark, M. J., Raine, W. J., Burbeck, S. L., & Davison, K. K. (1974). Some empirical patterns in a riot process: American Sociological Review Vol 39(6) Dec 1974, 865-876.
- Sullivan, T. J. (1977). The critical mass in crowd behavior: Crowd size, contagion and the evolution of riots: Humboldt Journal of Social Relations Vol 4(2) Spr-Sum 1977, 46-59.
- Tan, E.-S., & Simons, R. C. (1973). Psychiatric sequelae to a civil disturbance: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 122(566) Jan 1973, 57-63.
- Thorne, F. C. (1975). The psychology of the exploding situation: A commentary: Journal of Community Psychology Vol 3(2) Apr 1975, 182-187.
- Tome, H. R. (1971). The expectations of assistance among adolescents before and after "May 68." Bulletin de Psychologie Vol 25(14-17) 1971-1972, 822-829.
- Useem, B. (1985). Disorganization and the New Mexico prison riot of 1980: American Sociological Review Vol 50(5) Oct 1985, 677-688.
- Useem, B. (1997). The state and collective disorders: The Los Angeles riot/protest of April, 1992: Social Forces Vol 76(2) Dec 1997, 357-377.
- Verma, A. (2007). Anatomy of riots: A situational crime prevention approach: Crime Prevention and Community Safety Vol 9(3) Jul 2007, 201-221.
- Vuchinich, S., & Teachman, J. (1993). Influences on the duration of wars, strikes, riots, and family arguments: Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 37(3) Sep 1993, 544-568.
- Vuchinich, S., & Teachman, J. (1994). "Influences on the duration of wars, strikes, riots, and family arguments": Errata: Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 38(3) Sep 1994, 586.
- Walrath, C. M. (1994). The impact of racial rioting on crime in the United States: 1960-1991. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Watkins, J. G. (1974). The expanding fist: A behavioral approach to riot prevention and rehabilitation: Journal of Psychiatry & Law Vol 2(4) Win 1974, 437-453.
- Welch, S., & Booth, A. (1974). Crowding as a factor in political aggression: Theoretical aspects and an analysis of some cross-national data: Social Science Information/sur les sciences sociales Vol 13(4-5) Aug-Oct 1974, 151-162.
- Weller, J. M. (1973). Innovations in anticipation of crisis: Organizational preparations for natural disasters and civil disturbances: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Weller, M. P. (1985). Crowds, mobs and riots: Medicine, Science, & the Law Vol 25(4) 1985, 295-303.
- Williams, J. (2001). The costs of safety in risk societies: Journal of Forensic Psychiatry Vol 12(1) Apr 2001, 1-7.
- Williamson, F. (1978). A day hospital within the divisions of a troubled community: International Journal of Social Psychiatry Vol 24(2) Sum 1978, 95-103.
- Williamson, T. M., Rowe, T., & Reicher, S. (1991). "Police intervention in riots: The role of accountability and group norms: A field experiment": Commentary: Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology Vol 1(4) Nov 1991, 269-273.
- Willis, M., & Cairns, E. (1993). Catholic accounts of rioting in Derry: Irish Journal of Psychology Vol 14(4) 1993, 535-545.
- Wilson, D. (2006). Review of Power, Discourse and Resistance: A Genealogy of the Strangeways Riot: Howard Journal of Criminal Justice Vol 45(3) Jul 2006, 336-338.
- Winkel, F. W. (1999). Ethnic riots in the context of a theory of implicit discrimination: Psycholoog Vol 34(6) Jun 1999, 267-271.
- Wright, S. (1978). Crowds and riots: A study in social organization. Oxford, England: Sage.
- Zeeman, E. C., & et al. (1976). A model for institutional disturbances: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology Vol 29(1) May 1976, 66-80.
- Zinn, L. D., & Miller, D. H. (1978). Riots on adolescent inpatient units: Journal of the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals Vol 9(3) 1978, 43-51.
- Revolution '67 - Documentary about the Newark, New Jersey race riots of 1967
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|