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Solomon won several awards for his scientific achievements, including the Distinguished Scientific Contribution award of the American Psychological Association and the Howard Crosby Medal of the Society of Experimental Psychologists. Additionally, he was elected to both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. He also held several honorary posts, and edited the Psychological Review.
During his time at Harvard University, Solomon conducted research into avoidance learning. In his experiments, he placed dogs into shuttle boxes with two chambers. The lights would then come on in the side where the dog was. A few seconds later, one half of the chamber would become electrified. To avoid shock, the dog would run to the other chamber. Eventually, the dogs learned to avoid shock entirely by running to the other side in the interval between lighting and electrification.