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Rhodopsin-like receptors

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Rhodopsin-like receptors are the largest group of G-protein coupled receptors.

G-protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs, constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions (including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes). They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups. GPCRs are usually described as "superfamily" because they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence.[1] The currently known superfamily members include the rhodopsin-like GPCRs, the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. There is a specialised database for GPCRs: http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/.

The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices.[2][3][4]

Rhodopsin-like GPCRs have been classified into the following 19 subgroups (A1-A19) based on a phylogenetic analysis.[5]

Subfamily A1Edit

Subfamily A2Edit

Subfamily A3Edit

Subfamily A4Edit

Subfamily A5Edit

Subfamily A6Edit

Subfamily A7Edit

Subfamily A8Edit

Subfamily A9Edit

Subfamily A10Edit

Subfamily A11Edit

Subfamily A12Edit

Subfamily A13Edit

Subfamily A14Edit

Subfamily A15Edit

Subfamily A16Edit

Subfamily A17Edit

Subfamily A18Edit

Subfamily A19Edit

UnclassifiedEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Attwood TK, Findlay JB (1994). Fingerprinting G-protein-coupled receptors. Protein Eng. 7 (2): 195-203.
  2. Birnbaumer L (1990). G proteins in signal transduction. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 30: 675-705.
  3. Gilman AG, Casey PJ (1988). G protein involvement in receptor-effector coupling. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (6): 2577-2580.
  4. Attwood TK, Findlay JB (1993). Design of a discriminating fingerprint for G-protein-coupled receptors. Protein Eng. 6 (2): 167-176.
  5. Joost P, Methner A (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human G-protein-coupled receptors as a tool for the prediction of orphan receptor ligands. Genome Biol 3 (11): research0063.1-0063.16.
  6. Terakita A (2005). The opsins. Genome Biol. 6 (3): 213.

External linksEdit

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