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{{BioPsy}}
 
{{BioPsy}}
   
[[Image:Central nervous system.svg|thumb|200px|A diagram showing the CNS:<br />'''1.''' Brain<br />'''2.''' Central nervous system<br />&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<small>(brain and spinal cord)</small><br>'''3.''' Spinal cord]]
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{{Infobox Brain|
The '''central nervous system''' ('''CNS''') represents the largest part of the [[nervous system]]. Together with the [[peripheral nervous system]], it has a fundamental role in the control of behavior.
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Name = Rhinencephalon |
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Latin = |
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GraySubject = 189 |
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GrayPage = 826 |
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Image = Gray732.png |
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Caption = Scheme of rhinencephalon |
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Image2 = |
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Caption2 = |
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IsPartOf = |
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Components = |
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Artery = |
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Vein = |
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Acronym = |
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BrainInfoType = ancil |
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BrainInfoNumber = 241 |
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MeshName = Rhinencephalon |
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MeshNumber = A08.186.211.577.699 |
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DorlandsPre = r_12 |
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DorlandsSuf = 12708360 |
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}}
   
Since the strong theoretical influence of [[cybernetics]] in the fifties, the CNS is conceived as a system devoted to information processing, where an appropriate motor output is computed as a response to a sensory input. Yet, many threads of research suggest that motor activity exists well before the maturation of the sensory systems and then, that the senses only influence behaviour without dictating it. This has brought the conception of the CNS as an autonomous system.
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In [[animal anatomy]], the '''rhinencephalon''' is a part of the [[brain]] involved with [[olfaction]].
   
The whole CNS originates from the [[neural plate]], a specialised region of the [[germ layer|ectoderm]], the most external of the three embryonic layers. During embryonic development, the neural plate folds and forms the [[neural tube]]. The internal cavity of the neural tube will give rise to the ventricular system. The regions of the neural tube will differentiate progressively into transversal systems. First, the whole neural tube will differentiate into its two major subdivisions: [[spinal cord]] (caudal) and [[brain]] (rostral). Consecutively, the brain will differentiate into [[brainstem]] and [[prosencephalon]]. Later, the brainstem will subdivide into [[rhombencephalon]] and [[mesencephalon]], and the prosencephalon into [[diencephalon]] and [[telencephalon]].
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==Components==
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The term "Rhinencephalon" has been used to describe different structures at different points in time.<ref name="isbn0-8493-8631-4">{{cite book |author=Terence R. Anthoney |title=Neuroanatomy and the neurologic exam: a thesaurus of synonyms, similar-sounding non-synonyms, and terms of variable meaning |publisher=CRC Press |location=Boca Raton |year=1994 |pages=311 |isbn=0-8493-8631-4 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=}}</ref>
   
The CNS is covered by the [[meninges]], the brain is protected by the skull and the spinal cord by the vertebrae. The rhombencephalon gives rise to the [[pons]], the [[cerebellum]] and the [[medulla oblongata]], its cavity becomes the fourth ventricle. The mesencephalon gives rise to the [[tectum]], [[pretectum]], [[cerebral peduncle]] and its cavity develops into the [[mesencephalic duct]] or cerebral aqueduct. The diencephalon gives rise to the [[subthalamus]], [[hypothalamus]], [[thalamus]] and [[epithalamus]], its cavity to the third ventricle. Finally, the telencephalon gives rise to the [[striatum]] (caudate nucleus and putamen), the [[hippocampus]] and the [[neocortex]], its cavity becomes the lateral (first and second) ventricles.
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One definition includes the [[olfactory bulb]], [[olfactory tract]], [[anterior olfactory nucleus]],[[anterior perforated substance]], [[medial olfactory stria]], [[lateral olfactory stria]], parts of the [[amygdala]] and [[prepyriform area]].<ref>http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/AncilDefinition.aspx?ID=2078&questID=2078</ref>
   
The basic pattern of the CNS is highly conserved throughout the different species of [[vertebrates]] and during evolution. The major trend that can be observed is towards a progressive telencephalisation: while in the reptilian brain that region is only an appendix to the large olfactory bulb, it represent most of the volume of the mammalian CNS. In the human brain, the telencephalon covers most of the diencephalon and the mesencephalon. Indeed, the [[allometry|allometric]] study of brain size among different species shows a striking continuity from rats to whales, and allows us to complete the knowledge about the evolution of the CNS obtained through [[cranial endocast]]s.
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Some references classify other areas of the brain related to perception of smell as rhinencephalon, but the areas of human brains that receive fibers strictly from the [[olfactory bulb]] are limited to those of the [[paleopallium]]. As such, the rhinencephalon includes the olfactory bulb, the [[olfactory tract]], the [[olfactory tubercle]] and [[striae]], the [[anterior olfactory nucleus]] and parts of the [[amygdala]] and the [[piriform cortex]].
   
==Parts of the CNS==
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
<!-- Don't add too much structures to this list... there is
 
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<center>
 
<table style="width:75%" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="0">
 
<tr>
 
<td colspan="82">[[Spinal Cord]] </td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td rowspan="4">[[Brain]]</td>
 
<td rowspan="2">[[Brainstem]]</td>
 
<td>[[Rhombencephalon]]</td>
 
<td>
 
[[Pons]],
 
[[Cerebellum]],
 
[[Medulla oblongata]]
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>[[Mesencephalon]]</td>
 
<td>
 
[[Tectum]],
 
[[Cerebral peduncle]],
 
[[Pretectum]],
 
[[Mesencephalic duct]]
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td rowspan="2">[[Prosencephalon]]</td>
 
<td>[[Diencephalon]]</td>
 
<td>
 
[[Epithalamus]],
 
[[Thalamus]],
 
[[Hypothalamus]],
 
[[Subthalamus]],
 
[[Pituitary Gland]],
 
[[Pineal Gland]],
 
[[Third ventricle]]
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>[[Telencephalon]]</td>
 
<td>
 
[[Basal ganglia]],
 
[[Rhinencephalon]],
 
[[Amygdala]],
 
[[Hippocampus]],
 
[[Neocortex]],
 
[[Lateral ventricles]]
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
</center>
 
 
==See also==
 
* [[Glossary of anatomical terminology, definitions and abbreviations]]
 
* [[List of regions in the human brain]]
 
* [[Central nervous system infection]]
 
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
* [http://www.sylvius.com Sylvius: 400+ structure neuroanatomical visual glossary; used by over half of U.S. medical schools]
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* {{YaleCranialNerves|1|5}}
* [http://primate-brain.org High-Resolution Cytoarchitectural Primate Brain Atlases]
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* {{eMedicineDictionary|Rhinencephalon}}
* [http://www.marymt.edu/~psychol/brain.html Human Brains: A Learning Tool].
 
* [http://www.humannervoussystem.info Explaining the human nervous system].
 
* [http://www.backrack.co.uk/nervous_index.shtml Nervous System - Back Pain - Anatomy (info on nerve pairs)].
 
   
{{nervous system}}
 
[[Category:Central nervous system|*]]
 
[[Category:Nervous system]]
 
   
[[da:Centralnervesystemet]]
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{{Basal forebrain}}
[[de:Zentralnervensystem]]
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{{Olfactory system}}
[[es:Sistema nervioso central]]
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[[Category:Neuroanatomy]]
[[fr:Système nerveux central]]
 
[[io:Centrala nervaro]]
 
[[is:Miðtaugakerfið]]
 
[[it:Sistema nervoso centrale]]
 
[[he:מערכת העצבים המרכזית]]
 
[[lt:Centrinė nervų sistema]]
 
[[nl:Centraal zenuwstelsel]]
 
[[no:Sentralnervesystem]]
 
[[pl:Ośrodkowy układ nerwowy]]
 
[[pt:Sistema nervoso central]]
 
[[ru:Центральная нервная система]]
 
[[fi:Keskushermosto]]
 
[[sv:Centrala nervsystemet]]
 
[[uk:Центральна нервова система]]
 
   
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{{enWP| Rhinencephalon}}
 
{{enWP| Rhinencephalon}}

Latest revision as of 10:22, March 19, 2010

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Brain: Rhinencephalon
Gray732
Scheme of rhinencephalon
[[Image:|250px|center|]]
Latin '
Gray's subject #189 826
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW ancil-241
MeSH A08.186.211.577.699

In animal anatomy, the rhinencephalon is a part of the brain involved with olfaction.

ComponentsEdit

The term "Rhinencephalon" has been used to describe different structures at different points in time.[1]

One definition includes the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, anterior olfactory nucleus,anterior perforated substance, medial olfactory stria, lateral olfactory stria, parts of the amygdala and prepyriform area.[2]

Some references classify other areas of the brain related to perception of smell as rhinencephalon, but the areas of human brains that receive fibers strictly from the olfactory bulb are limited to those of the paleopallium. As such, the rhinencephalon includes the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, the olfactory tubercle and striae, the anterior olfactory nucleus and parts of the amygdala and the piriform cortex.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Terence R. Anthoney (1994). Neuroanatomy and the neurologic exam: a thesaurus of synonyms, similar-sounding non-synonyms, and terms of variable meaning, 311, Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  2. http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/AncilDefinition.aspx?ID=2078&questID=2078

External linksEdit


Template:Basal forebrain

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