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A response cost is the negative consequence of a response. By administering a response cost you are attempting to reduce a targeted behavior through withdrawal of specific amounts of previously established reinforcers contingent upon that behavior's occurrence.
As an example: in a behaviour modification program aimed at reducing a childs aggressive verbal behavior we might deduct a point or token, or a promise of future reward (the response cost), if they swear (the target behavior) in an attempt to reduce the frequency of that behavior.
The concept has been used in token economy programs.
Principals of administrationEdit
Token economy studiesEdit
- Mitchell, S. H. (2003). Discounting the Value of Commodities According to Different Types of Cost. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Pergamon/Elsevier Science Inc.
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- Crosbie, J., Williams, A. M., Lattal, K. A., Anderson, M. M., & Brown, S. M. (1997). Schedule interactions involving punishment with pigeons and humans. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 68(2), pp.
- Erika, G. M., & Gustavo, B. M. (2007). Behavioral sequence formation through response cost. Revista Mexicana de Psicologia, 24(2), pp.
- Falcomata, T. S., Roane, H. S., Hovanetz, A. N., Kettering, T. L., & Keeney, K. M. (2004). An evaluation of response cost in the treatment of inappropriate vocalizations maintained by automatic reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(1), pp.
- Foltin, R. W. (1997). Food and amphetamine self-administration by baboons: Effects of alternatives. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 68(1), pp.
- Heuer, H., Kleinsorge, T., Klein, W., & Kohlisch, O. (2004). Total sleep deprivation increases the costs of shifting between simple cognitive tasks. Acta Psychologica, 117(1), pp.
- Homburg, A., & Wagner, U. (2007). Factors of individual threat, efficacy and cost appraisal in the context of environmental stressors. Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie, 38(1), pp.
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- Keeney, K. M., Fisher, W. W., Adelinis, J. D., & Wilder, D. A. (2000). The effects of response cost in the treatment of aberrant behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(2), pp.
- Larrea, C., & Santos, J. (2006). Cost allocation schemes: An asymptotic approach. Games and Economic Behavior, 57(1), pp.
- Luman, M., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2005). Corrigendum to "The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: A review and theoretical appraisal". Clinical Psychology Review, 25(4), pp.
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- McGoey, K. E., & DuPaul, G. J. (2000). Token reinforcement and response cost procedures: Reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(3), pp.
- Milella, M. S., Amato, D., Badiani, A., & Nencini, P. (2008). The influence of cost manipulation on water contrafreeloading induced by repeated exposure to quinpirole in the rat. [[Psychopharmacology (journal), 197(3), pp.
- Neill, D. B., Fenton, H., & Justice, J. B., Jr. (2002). Increase in accumbal dopaminergic transmission correlates with response cost not reward of hypothalamic stimulation. Behavioural Brain Research, 137(1-2), pp.
- Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998). Effects of reward and response cost on response inhibition in AD/HD, disruptive, anxious, and normal children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: An official publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 26(3), pp.
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- Reimeres, T. M. (1996). A biobehavioral approach toward managing encopresis. Behavior Modification, 20(4), pp.
- Reynolds, L. K., & Kelley, M. L. (1997). The efficacy of a response cost-based treatment package for managing aggressive behavior in preschoolers. Behavior Modification, 21(2), pp.
- Rogers, P., & Darnley, S. (1997). Self-monitoring, competing response and response cost in the treatment of trichotillomania: A case report. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25(3), pp.
- Roper, K. L., & Zentall, T. R. (1999). Observing behavior in pigeons: The effect of reinforcement probability and response cost using a symmetrical choice procedure. Learning and Motivation, 30(3), pp.
- Schuch, S., & Koch, I. (2004). The Costs of Changing the Representation of Action: Response Repetition and Response-Response Compatibility in Dual Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30(3), pp.
- Shibasaki, M., & Kawai, N. (2008). The effects of response cost and time on choosing a stimulus. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 79(3), pp.
- Sturges, J. W., Sims, J., Omar, K., Balian, R., Angell, C., Davenport, J., et al. (2009). It doesn't feel good: The biggest obstacle to condom use among college students. the Behavior Therapist, 32(2), pp.
- Thorpe, C. M., & Wilkie, D. M. (2007). Rats acquire a low-response-cost daily time-place task with differential amounts of food. Learning & Behavior, 35(1), pp.
- Truchlicka, M., McLaughlin, T., & Swain, J. C. (1998). Effects of token reinforcement and response cost on the accuracy of spelling performance with middle-school special education students with behavior disorders. Behavioral Interventions, 13(1), pp.
- Walton, M. E., Rudebeck, P. H., Bannerman, D. M., & Rushworth, M. F. (2007). Calculating the cost of acting in frontal cortex. In Reward and decision making in corticobasal ganglia networks (pp. 340-356). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
- Widman, D. R., Gordon, D., & Timberlake, W. (2000). Response cost and time-place discrimination by rats in maze tasks. Animal Learning & Behavior, 28(3), pp.
- Widman, D. R., Sermania, C. M., & Genismore, K. E. (2004). Evidence for time-place learning in the Morris water maze without food restriction but with increased response cost. Behavioural Processes, 67(2), pp.
- Allin, J. L. (2006). The effects of vicarious rewards and vicarious response-cost on incidental learning. Allin, Jessica Leigh: U Tennessee, US.
- Christensen, M. (1997). An interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the mailed questionnaire process and the development of a theory on immediacy and salience as significant variables of response rates. Christensen, Maribeth: Utah State U, US.
- Greenlaw, C. P. (2007). A comparison of web-based and paper-based survey methods: Testing assumptions of survey mode and response cost. Greenlaw, Corey P : California State U, Fresno And University Of California, Davis, US.
- McGoey, K. E. (1998). Positive reinforcement and response cost procedures: Reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mcgoey, Kara Elizabeth: Lehigh U, US.
- Peck, R. J. (2005). Contingent magnitude of reward: An alternative to response cost for behavior suppression. Peck, Rebecca Jean: Argosy U/Seattle, US
- Turner, B. L. B. (1996). Effects of response cost, bibliotherapy and academic tutoring on attentional behavior, achievement, work productivity, accuracy, and self-esteem in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Turner, Becky Louise Beno: Auburn U, US.
- Viola, V. J. (1996). The effects of token reinforcement and response cost on Category Test performance of medicated boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Viola, Vincent James: East Texas State U, US.