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{{Biopsy}}
 
{{Biopsy}}
 
{{PsyPerspective}}
 
{{PsyPerspective}}
'''Reproductive technology''' encompasses all current and anticipated uses of [[technology]] in [[human]] and [[animal]] [[reproduction]], including [[assisted reproductive technology]], [[contraception]] and others.
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'''Reproductive technology''' encompasses all current and anticipated uses of [[technology]] in [[human]] and [[animal]] [[reproduction]], including assisted reproductive technology, [[contraception]] and others.
   
 
==Assisted reproductive technology==
 
==Assisted reproductive technology==
{{Main|Assisted reproductive technology}}
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'''Assisted reproductive technology''' ('''ART''') is a general term referring to methods used to achieve [[pregnancy]] by artificial or partially artificial means. It is [[reproductive technology]] used in [[infertility]] treatment, which is the only application routinely used today of reproductive technology. However, there is yet no strict definition of the term.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the use of reproductive technology to treat [[infertility]]. This is today the only application of reproductive technology to increase reproduction that is used routinely. Examples include ''in vitro'' fertilization and its possible expansions.
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==Definitions==
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While there is no consensus on the definition, generally the process of intercourse is bypassed either by [[insemination]] (example [[IUI]]) or fertilization of the [[oocyte]]s in the laboratory environment (i.e. in [[IVF]]).
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*The [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]](CDC) -- which is required as a result of the 1992 Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act to publish the annual ART success rates at U.S. fertility clinics -- defines ART to include "all fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled. In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman’s body or donating them to another woman." According to CDC, "they do not include treatments in which only sperm are handled (i.e., intrauterine—or artificial—insemination) or procedures in which a woman takes medicine only to stimulate egg production without the intention of having eggs retrieved."
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Examples include ''in vitro'' fertilization and its possible expansions.
 
* [[Artificial insemination]]
 
* [[Artificial insemination]]
 
* [[Cloning]] (see [[human cloning]] for the special case of human beings)
 
* [[Cloning]] (see [[human cloning]] for the special case of human beings)
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* [[Testicular sperm extraction]] (TESE)
 
* [[Testicular sperm extraction]] (TESE)
 
* [[Gamete intrafallopian transfer]] ([[GIFT]])
 
* [[Gamete intrafallopian transfer]] ([[GIFT]])
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==Risks==
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The majority of IVF-conceived infants do not have [[congenital disorder|birth defect]]s.<!--
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--><ref name="Van Voorhis 2007">{{cite journal |author=Van Voorhis BJ |year=2007 |title=Clinical practice. In vitro fertilization |journal=[[New England Journal of Medicine|N Engl J Med]] |volume=356 |issue=4 |pages=379–86 |pmid=17251534 |doi=10.1056/NEJMcp065743}}</ref>
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However, some studies have suggested that assisted reproductive technology is associated with an increased risk of birth defects.<!--
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--><ref name="Kurinczuk 2004">{{cite journal |author=Kurinczuk JJ, Hansen M, Bower C |year=2004 |title=The risk of birth defects in children born after assisted reproductive technologies |journal=Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol |volume=16 |issue=3 |pages=201–9 |pmid=15129049 |doi=10.1097/00001703-200406000-00002}}</ref><!--
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--><ref name="Hansen 2005">{{cite journal |author=Hansen M, Bower C, Milne E, de Klerk N, Kurinczuk JJ |year=2005 |title=Assisted reproductive technologies and the risk of birth defects--a systematic review |journal=Hum Reprod |volume=20 |issue=2 |pages=328–38 |pmid=15567881 |url=http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/20/2/328.pdf |doi=10.1093/humrep/deh593}}</ref>
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In the largest U.S. study, which used data from a statewide registry of birth defects,<!--
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--><ref name="Olson 2005">{{cite journal |author=Olson CK, Keppler-Noreuil KM, Romitti PA, Budelier WT, Ryan G, Sparks AE, Van Voorhis BJ |year=2005 |title=In vitro fertilization is associated with an increase in major birth defects |journal=Fertil Steril |volume=84 |issue=5 |pages=1308–15 |pmid=16275219 |doi=10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.03.086}}</ref>
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6.2% of IVF-conceived children had major defects, as compared with 4.4% of naturally conceived children matched for [[maternal age effect|maternal age]] and other factors ([[odds ratio]], 1.3; 95% [[confidence interval]], 1.00 to 1.67).<!--
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--><ref name="Van Voorhis 2007"/>
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The main risks are:
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* [[Genetic disorder]]s. [[DNA damage]] increases in e.g. IVF and ICSI, which is reflected e.g. by upregulation of the [[gene expression]] of [[HNRNPC]] in the placenta.<ref name=zhang> {{cite journal |author=Zhang Y, Zhang YL, Feng C, ''et al'' |title=Comparative proteomic analysis of human placenta derived from assisted reproductive technology |journal=Proteomics |volume= |issue= |pages= |year=2008 |month=September |pmid=18792929 |doi=10.1002/pmic.200800294 |url=}}</ref>
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* Low [[birth weight]]. In IVF and ICSI, a risk factor is the decreased expression of proteins in [[energy metabolism]]; [[Ferritin light chain]] and [[ATP5A1]].<ref name=zhang/>
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Other risk factors are:
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*[[Membrane damage]], which is contributed to or reflected by increased expression of the [[membrane fusion protein]]s [[NAPA (gene)|NAPA]] and [[Annexin A3]]<ref name=zhang/>.
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==Costs==
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===United States of America===
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Not everyone in the U.S. has [[health insurance|insurance]] coverage for fertility investigations and treatments. Many states are starting to mandate coverage, and the rate of utilization is 277% higher in states with complete coverage. <ref>Jain T, Harlow BL, Hornstein MD. "Insurance coverage and outcome of ''in vitro'' fertilization." New England Journal of Medicine. 347(9):661-6.</ref>
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There are some health insurance companies that cover diagnosis of infertility but frequently once diagnosed will not cover any treatment costs.
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2005 approximate treatment/diagnosis costs (United States, costs in US$):
  +
* Initial workup: [[hysteroscopy]], [[hysterosalpingogram]], [[blood test]]s ~$2,000
  +
* Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) fka Artificial insemination ~ $200- 900 per. trial
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* Sonohysterogram (SHG) ~ $600 - 1,000
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* Clomiphene citrate cycle ~ $ 200 - 500
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* IVF cycle ~ $10,000 -30,000
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* Use of a [[surrogate mother]] to carry the child - dependent on arrangements
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Another way to look at costs is to determine the cost of establishing a pregnancy. Thus if a clomiphene treatment has a chance to establish a pregnancy in 8% of cycles and costs $500, it will cost ~ $6,000 to establish a pregnancy, compared to an IVF cycle (cycle fecundity 40%) with a corresponding cost of ($12,000/40%) $90,000
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For the community as a whole, the cost of IVF on average pays back by 700% by tax from future employment by the conceived human being.<ref>[http://www.ajmc.com/Article.cfm?Menu=1&ID=10709 Long-term Economic Benefits Attributed to IVF-conceived Children: A Lifetime Tax Calculation] by Mark P. Connolly, MHE; Michael S. Pollard, PhD; Stijn Hoorens, MSc; Brian R. Kaplan, MD; Selwyn P. Oskowitz, MD; and Sherman J. Silber, MD </ref>
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===United Kingdom===
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In the UK all patients have the right to preliminary testing, provided free of charge by the [[National Health Service]]. However, treatment is not widely available on the NHS and there can be long waiting lists. Many patients therefore pay for immediate treatment within the NHS or seek help from private clinics<ref>[http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/articles/article.aspx?articleId=214&sectionId=10957 Infertility Treatment, NHS Direct Online] (NHS Direct Online Health Enyclopaedia)</ref>.
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===Sweden===
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In Sweden, official fertility clinics provide most necessary treatments and initial workup, but there are long waiting lists, especially for egg donations, since the donor gets just as low reward as the receiving couple are charged. However, there are private fertility clinics.{{Fact|date=July 2008}}
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*[[Genetic engineering]]
 
*[[Genetic engineering]]
 
*[[Genetics]]
 
*[[Genetics]]
*[[Pregnancy]]
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*[[Prenatal diagnosis]]
*[[Prenatal dianosis]]
 
 
*[[Selective breeding]]
 
*[[Selective breeding]]
 
*[[Sexual reproduction]]
 
*[[Sexual reproduction]]

Latest revision as of 07:17, December 22, 2008

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Reproductive technology encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.

Assisted reproductive technologyEdit

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a general term referring to methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. It is reproductive technology used in infertility treatment, which is the only application routinely used today of reproductive technology. However, there is yet no strict definition of the term.

DefinitionsEdit

While there is no consensus on the definition, generally the process of intercourse is bypassed either by insemination (example IUI) or fertilization of the oocytes in the laboratory environment (i.e. in IVF).

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) -- which is required as a result of the 1992 Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act to publish the annual ART success rates at U.S. fertility clinics -- defines ART to include "all fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled. In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman’s body or donating them to another woman." According to CDC, "they do not include treatments in which only sperm are handled (i.e., intrauterine—or artificial—insemination) or procedures in which a woman takes medicine only to stimulate egg production without the intention of having eggs retrieved."

Examples include in vitro fertilization and its possible expansions.

RisksEdit

The majority of IVF-conceived infants do not have birth defects.[1] However, some studies have suggested that assisted reproductive technology is associated with an increased risk of birth defects.[2][3] In the largest U.S. study, which used data from a statewide registry of birth defects,[4] 6.2% of IVF-conceived children had major defects, as compared with 4.4% of naturally conceived children matched for maternal age and other factors (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.67).[1]

The main risks are:

Other risk factors are:

CostsEdit

United States of AmericaEdit

Not everyone in the U.S. has insurance coverage for fertility investigations and treatments. Many states are starting to mandate coverage, and the rate of utilization is 277% higher in states with complete coverage. [6]

There are some health insurance companies that cover diagnosis of infertility but frequently once diagnosed will not cover any treatment costs.

2005 approximate treatment/diagnosis costs (United States, costs in US$):

  • Initial workup: hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingogram, blood tests ~$2,000
  • Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) fka Artificial insemination ~ $200- 900 per. trial
  • Sonohysterogram (SHG) ~ $600 - 1,000
  • Clomiphene citrate cycle ~ $ 200 - 500
  • IVF cycle ~ $10,000 -30,000
  • Use of a surrogate mother to carry the child - dependent on arrangements

Another way to look at costs is to determine the cost of establishing a pregnancy. Thus if a clomiphene treatment has a chance to establish a pregnancy in 8% of cycles and costs $500, it will cost ~ $6,000 to establish a pregnancy, compared to an IVF cycle (cycle fecundity 40%) with a corresponding cost of ($12,000/40%) $90,000

For the community as a whole, the cost of IVF on average pays back by 700% by tax from future employment by the conceived human being.[7]

United KingdomEdit

In the UK all patients have the right to preliminary testing, provided free of charge by the National Health Service. However, treatment is not widely available on the NHS and there can be long waiting lists. Many patients therefore pay for immediate treatment within the NHS or seek help from private clinics[8].

SwedenEdit

In Sweden, official fertility clinics provide most necessary treatments and initial workup, but there are long waiting lists, especially for egg donations, since the donor gets just as low reward as the receiving couple are charged. However, there are private fertility clinics.[How to reference and link to summary or text]


ContraceptionEdit

Contraception is a form of reproductive technology that enables people to control their fertility.


ControversyEdit

Many issues of reproductive technology have given rise to bioethical issues, since technology often alters the assumptions that lie behind existing systems of sexual and reproductive morality.

Also, ethical issues of human enhancement arise when reproductive technology has evolved to be a potential technology for not only reproductively inhibited people but even for otherwise reproductively healthy people.

See asloEdit


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Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

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