Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Changes: Religious practices

Edit

Back to page

(See also)
 
(5 intermediate revisions by one user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{SocPsy}}
 
{{SocPsy}}
  +
{{PsyPerspective}}
 
{{religion}}
 
{{religion}}
 
'''Religious practices''' are the collection of behaviors that religious people perform as part of the conduct of their [[religion]]. This includes the rites, rituals and [[worship]] practices they perform more specifically:
 
'''Religious practices''' are the collection of behaviors that religious people perform as part of the conduct of their [[religion]]. This includes the rites, rituals and [[worship]] practices they perform more specifically:
Line 10: Line 11:
 
*[[Meditation]]
 
*[[Meditation]]
 
*[[Prayer]]
 
*[[Prayer]]
  +
*[[Sacrifice]]
 
*[[Singing]]
 
*[[Singing]]
 
*[[Yoga]]
 
*[[Yoga]]
  +
  +
==Actions==
  +
The two best known religious actions are [[prayer]] and [[sacrifice]]. The most general religious action is prayer. It can be done quietly by a person all alone, but people can also pray in groups using songs. [[Sacrifice]] is also a widely spread religious action. Prayer and sacrifice often form the basis of other, more complicated religious actions like [[pilgrimage]], [[procession]]s, or consulting an [[oracle]]. Many rituals are connected to a certain purpose, like [[initiation]], [[ritual purification]] and preparation for an important happening or task. Among these are also the so-called rituals of transition, which occur at important moments of the human life cycle, like [[birth]], adulthood/[[marriage]], sickness and [[death]]. A special religious action involves practices that result in [[religious experiences]] of [[spirit possession]] and [[religious ecstasy]]. [[Religious specialists]], such as [[priest]]s, [[vicar]]s, [[rabbi]]s, [[imam]]s and [[pandit]]s are involved in many religious actions.
  +
  +
==Avoidances==
  +
A religious avoidance is when a person desists from something or from some action for religious reasons. It can be food or drink that one does not touch because of one's religion for some time ([[fast]]). This [[abstinence]] can also be for a longer time. Some people do not have sex ([[celibacy]]). Or one avoids contact with [[blood]], or dead animals. Well known examples are: [[Jew]]s and [[Muslim]]s do not eat pork; the celibacy of [[Catholic]] priests; the purity rules of [[Hinduism]] and Judaism.
  +
  +
These avoidances, or 'taboos', are often about food and drink.
  +
* speech; some words are forbidden ([[Profanity|cursing]])
  +
* dying, death and [[mourning]]
  +
  +
Religious avoidances are often not easily recognisable as (part of) religious behaviour. When asked, the believers often do not motivate this kind of behaviour explicitly as religious but say the avoidance for health reasons, ethical reasons, or because it is hygienic.
   
   
 
A '''ritual''' is a set of actions, often thought to have [[symbol]]ic value, the performance of which is usually prescribed by a [[religion]] or by the [[tradition]]s of a community by religious or political laws because of the perceived efficacy of those actions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/ritual?view=uk|title=AskOxford.com|accessdate=2007-07-31}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ritual|title=Dictionary.com|accessdate=2007-07-31}}</ref>
 
A '''ritual''' is a set of actions, often thought to have [[symbol]]ic value, the performance of which is usually prescribed by a [[religion]] or by the [[tradition]]s of a community by religious or political laws because of the perceived efficacy of those actions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/ritual?view=uk|title=AskOxford.com|accessdate=2007-07-31}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ritual|title=Dictionary.com|accessdate=2007-07-31}}</ref>
   
A ritual may be performed at regular intervals, or on specific occasions, or at the discretion of individuals or [[communities]]. It may be performed by a single individual, by a group, or by the entire community; in arbitrary places, or in places especially reserved for it; either in public, in private, or before specific people. A ritual may be restricted to a certain subset of the community, and may enable or underscore the passage between religious or social states.
+
==Rituals==
  +
A [[ritual]] may be performed at regular intervals, or on specific occasions, or at the discretion of individuals or [[communities]]. It may be performed by a single individual, by a group, or by the entire community; in arbitrary places, or in places especially reserved for it; either in public, in private, or before specific people. A ritual may be restricted to a certain subset of the community, and may enable or underscore the passage between religious or social states.
   
 
The purposes of rituals are varied; they include compliance with religious obligations or ideals, satisfaction of spiritual or emotional needs of the practitioners, strengthening of social bonds, demonstration of respect or submission, stating one's affiliation, obtaining social acceptance or approval for some event — or, sometimes, just for the pleasure of the ritual itself.
 
The purposes of rituals are varied; they include compliance with religious obligations or ideals, satisfaction of spiritual or emotional needs of the practitioners, strengthening of social bonds, demonstration of respect or submission, stating one's affiliation, obtaining social acceptance or approval for some event — or, sometimes, just for the pleasure of the ritual itself.
   
Rituals of various kinds are a feature of almost all known human societies, past or present. They include not only the various [[worship]] rites and sacraments of organized religions and cults, but also the [[rite of passage|rites of passage]] of certain societies, [[oath of allegiance|oaths of allegiance]], [[coronation]]s, and presidential inaugurations, marriages and funerals, school "rush" traditions and graduations, club meetings, sports events, Halloween parties, veteran parades, [[Christmas]] shopping and more. Many activities that are ostensibly performed for concrete purposes, such as [[jury trial]]s, [[death penalty|execution]] of criminals, and scientific [[symposium|symposia]], are loaded with purely symbolic actions prescribed by regulations or tradition, and thus partly ritualistic in nature. Even common actions like [[handshake|hand-shaking]] and saying [[hello]] are rituals.
+
[[Religious rituals]] of various kinds are a feature of almost all known human societies, past or present. They include not only the various [[worship]] rites and sacraments of organized religions and cults, but also the [[rite of passage|rites of passage]] of certain societies, oaths of allegiance, coronations, and presidential inaugurations, marriages and funerals, school "rush" traditions and graduations, club meetings, sports events, Halloween parties, veteran parades, Christmas shopping and more. Many activities that are ostensibly performed for concrete purposes, such as jury trials, execution of criminals, and scientific symposi, are loaded with purely symbolic actions prescribed by regulations or tradition, and thus partly ritualistic in nature.
   
 
In any case, an essential feature of a ritual is that the actions and their symbolism are not arbitrarily chosen by the performers, nor dictated by logic or necessity, but either are prescribed and imposed upon the performers by some external source or are inherited unconsciously from social traditions.
 
In any case, an essential feature of a ritual is that the actions and their symbolism are not arbitrarily chosen by the performers, nor dictated by logic or necessity, but either are prescribed and imposed upon the performers by some external source or are inherited unconsciously from social traditions.
Line 38: Line 52:
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
  +
*[[Abstinence]]
  +
*[[Ancestor worship]]
 
*[[Circumcision]]
 
*[[Circumcision]]
  +
*[[Cult (religious practice)]]
 
*[[Glossolalia]]
 
*[[Glossolalia]]
 
*[[Mysticism]]
 
*[[Mysticism]]
Line 46: Line 63:
 
*[[Rites]]
 
*[[Rites]]
 
*[[Ritual]]
 
*[[Ritual]]
+
*[[Ritual cleanliness]]
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<References/>
 
<References/>
  +
  +
==External links==
  +
* [http://home.kpn.nl/~dmjanssen1960/behaviour%20in%20the%20study%20of%20religions.html The study of religious behaviour, by J.P. Janssen]
   
 
[[Category:Behavior]]
 
[[Category:Behavior]]

Latest revision as of 12:32, November 25, 2013

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Social psychology: Altruism · Attribution · Attitudes · Conformity · Discrimination · Groups · Interpersonal relations · Obedience · Prejudice · Norms · Perception · Index · Outline


This article needs rewriting to enhance its relevance to psychologists..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..


Religious practices are the collection of behaviors that religious people perform as part of the conduct of their religion. This includes the rites, rituals and worship practices they perform more specifically:

ActionsEdit

The two best known religious actions are prayer and sacrifice. The most general religious action is prayer. It can be done quietly by a person all alone, but people can also pray in groups using songs. Sacrifice is also a widely spread religious action. Prayer and sacrifice often form the basis of other, more complicated religious actions like pilgrimage, processions, or consulting an oracle. Many rituals are connected to a certain purpose, like initiation, ritual purification and preparation for an important happening or task. Among these are also the so-called rituals of transition, which occur at important moments of the human life cycle, like birth, adulthood/marriage, sickness and death. A special religious action involves practices that result in religious experiences of spirit possession and religious ecstasy. Religious specialists, such as priests, vicars, rabbis, imams and pandits are involved in many religious actions.

AvoidancesEdit

A religious avoidance is when a person desists from something or from some action for religious reasons. It can be food or drink that one does not touch because of one's religion for some time (fast). This abstinence can also be for a longer time. Some people do not have sex (celibacy). Or one avoids contact with blood, or dead animals. Well known examples are: Jews and Muslims do not eat pork; the celibacy of Catholic priests; the purity rules of Hinduism and Judaism.

These avoidances, or 'taboos', are often about food and drink.

Religious avoidances are often not easily recognisable as (part of) religious behaviour. When asked, the believers often do not motivate this kind of behaviour explicitly as religious but say the avoidance for health reasons, ethical reasons, or because it is hygienic.


A ritual is a set of actions, often thought to have symbolic value, the performance of which is usually prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community by religious or political laws because of the perceived efficacy of those actions.[1][2]

RitualsEdit

A ritual may be performed at regular intervals, or on specific occasions, or at the discretion of individuals or communities. It may be performed by a single individual, by a group, or by the entire community; in arbitrary places, or in places especially reserved for it; either in public, in private, or before specific people. A ritual may be restricted to a certain subset of the community, and may enable or underscore the passage between religious or social states.

The purposes of rituals are varied; they include compliance with religious obligations or ideals, satisfaction of spiritual or emotional needs of the practitioners, strengthening of social bonds, demonstration of respect or submission, stating one's affiliation, obtaining social acceptance or approval for some event — or, sometimes, just for the pleasure of the ritual itself.

Religious rituals of various kinds are a feature of almost all known human societies, past or present. They include not only the various worship rites and sacraments of organized religions and cults, but also the rites of passage of certain societies, oaths of allegiance, coronations, and presidential inaugurations, marriages and funerals, school "rush" traditions and graduations, club meetings, sports events, Halloween parties, veteran parades, Christmas shopping and more. Many activities that are ostensibly performed for concrete purposes, such as jury trials, execution of criminals, and scientific symposi, are loaded with purely symbolic actions prescribed by regulations or tradition, and thus partly ritualistic in nature.

In any case, an essential feature of a ritual is that the actions and their symbolism are not arbitrarily chosen by the performers, nor dictated by logic or necessity, but either are prescribed and imposed upon the performers by some external source or are inherited unconsciously from social traditions.

Ritual actionsEdit

Due to their symbolic nature, there are hardly any limits to the kind of actions that may be incorporated in a ritual. The rites of past and present societies have typically involved special gestures and words, recitation of fixed texts, performance of special music, songs or dances, processions, manipulation of certain objects, use of special dresses, consumption of special food, drink, or drugs, and much more. Religious rituals have also included animal sacrifice, human sacrifice, ritual suicide, and ritual murder. Ritual lamentation -- song performed with weeping -- in many societies was regarded as required to ritually carry the departed soul to a safe afterlife (Tolbert 1990a, 1990b; Wilce 2006).

PurposesEdit

Ritual serves diverse purposes including, but not limited to:

  • Worship
  • Ritual purification with the aim of removing uncleanliness, which may be real or symbolic.
  • Atonement
  • Dedication
  • Education


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. AskOxford.com. URL accessed on 2007-07-31.
  2. Dictionary.com. URL accessed on 2007-07-31.

External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki