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A repressed memory, according to some theories of psychology, is a memory (often of a traumatic nature) of an event or environment, which is stored by the unconscious mind but outside the awareness of the conscious mind. Some theorize that these memories may be recovered (that is, integrated into consciousness) years or decades after the event, often via therapy. The theory of dissociative amnesia makes the assumption that memory repression is possible, and some mainstream sources argue that there is no substantial distinction between dissociative amnesia and repression of memory.[1][2]

The concept of repressed memory was originated by Sigmund Freud in his 1896 essay Zur Ätiologie der Hysterie ("On the etiology of hysteria"), however Freud himself abandoned his theory between 1897-1905, and during 1920-1923 replaced it with his impulse-based concept of Id, Super-ego, and Ego. Mainstream scientists studied repression, trauma-associated forgetting/amnesia and similar concepts throughout the 20th century. The repressed memory concept was repopularized during the 1980s and 1990s -- often being closely associated with recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse and high-profile court cases. However, the subject repressed memories suffered a backlash that was mostly created and shaped by the False Memory Syndrome Foundation.[3]

There is no clear scientific consensus on the question of repressed memory, with some leading experts arguing strongly in its favor,[4][5][6][7][8] while others take more agnostic[9][10][11][12] or negative positions.[13] One research report states that a distinction should be made between spontaneously recovered memories and memories recovered during suggestions in therapy.[14]


The theory of repressed memories must not be confused with the established psychological concept of repression, which stresses repression of impulses rather than memories.

Do repressed memories actually exist? Edit

Repressed memories may or may not exist. Amnesia of traumatic events does appear to happen, as do false memories or pseudo-memories; however, the theory of repressed memories involves far more, as it theorizes not only that memories can become completely unavailable to the conscious mind (amnesia) but that those same memories could later be retrieved, and at the time of retrieval have the same (or greater) reliability as memories which were never unavailable to the conscious mind. Many theories of Amnesia, such as Dissociative Amnesia, involve recall.

However it remains true that one must distinguish general psychological repression, amnesia, false memories or pseudo-memories, and the theory of repressed memories. They all are different concepts, each building upon different theoretical conceptions.

There currently exists a great controversy among researchers, treating professionals, law professionals, and the general public as to whether repressed memories actually exist, and even more heated controversy over whether recovered memories are valid, especially in lieu of corroborative evidence. This is particularly important as many controversial criminal cases have been based on witness testimony of recovered repressed memories, often of alleged childhood sexual abuse. Abuses of the Repressed Memory Theory and of controversial therapies like Recovered Memory Therapy often cause false memories to be formed.

Research and Theories Supporting Repressed Memories Edit

EtiologyEdit

One popular theory on how repressed memories originate is that traumatic memories are stored scattered about in the amygdala and hippocampus but not integrated into the neocortex. Also, it could be possible the right brain stores the memory but does not communicate it to the verbal left brain. This may mean that there is a continual active effort by the unconscious to repress memories, which can be dropped at a moment's notice should the unconscious decide to. For example, one possibility might be the anterior cingular actively inhibits the memory from reaching consciousness.

Another theory is that the cortisol, a chemical released during trauma, may induce forgetting. [15] [16] Cortisol appears to have the ability to erase details and possibly induce amnesia. One anecdotal study done by ABC News showed military personnel who were put through an extremely traumatic situation were unable to properly identify details of the memories, even remembering the perpetrator as someone of a different sex or with a different skin color.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Some people believe that people just force themselves to forget. Some studies, structurally similar to the famed " lost in the mall" studies have shown that people can force themselves to forget non-traumatic facts. Other researchers say that this might be explained by normal forgetting and normal recall experienced with all memories. [17]

Other supporting researchEdit

Jim Hopper of Harvard University writes, "A substantial body of empirical evidence of amnesia and delayed recall for abuse has existed for years." Evidence of amnesia and forgetting has been found in numerous studies of trauma survivors.[18] Hopper notes that amnesia or forgetting of childhood sexual abuse has been noted in every peer-reviewed study of such abuse, and that review of current research shows that at least 10% of all survivors of sexual abuse experience complete amnesia following abuse, followed by recall.

Research by Elizabeth Loftus -- a critic of forgotten or repressed traumatic memories who is regularly cited by the media -- regularly contradicts her own research, which found that roughly 20% survivors have experienced periods of amnesia followed by recall. [19]

The Recovered Memory Project, ran by the Taubman Center for Public Policy & American Institutions at Brown University, has documented 101 corroberated cases of delayed memory recall in cases of sexual abuse. Almost all of the cases have been corroberated by multiple sources. Some are clinical case studies, some are legal proceedings, and some are confirmed by other witnesses or victims. [20]

A 1999 study by Andrews et al.,[21] examined 690 patients in the UK who recovered memories of traumatic experience. 65% of patients recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse, while 35% recalled other trauma. Therapists reported that the overwhelming majority of cases were plausible, and that 41% of the cases were confirmed. 78% of patients recovered memories before entering therapy.

A study by Geraerts, et al. [22] found that memories recovered outside of psychotherapy are more likely to be accurate and verifiable (37% of such patients were able to verify their abuse, results comparable to Andrews et al.), while memories recovered while undergoing psychotherapy have markedly lower rates of independent verification (these patients had a 0% verification rate).

Research and Theories Critical of the Theory of Repressed Memories Edit

On the other hand, skeptics of theories of repressed memory suggest that the supposedly "recovered" memories are actually false memories, often based on subtle suggestions by the questioner. Recent research demonstrating the relative ease of deliberately implanting false memories has been cited as evidence for this hypothesis. Hundreds of people who went through therapy and were convinced that they had been abused by their family members have recanted and no longer believe they were abused.[23]

Repressed memories also may be mistaken for a normal form of amnesia of early childhood experienced by all humans. Memories before age 2 are almost always false[citation needed] or at least inaccurate, and few adults remember anything before age 3.[citation needed] This does not mean the individual was not abused, just that they do not have any memory of it and should not be expected to recall it.

A common explanation among proponents of the existence of repressed memories for the widespread skepticism and controversy is that the skeptics are denying their own traumatic experiences and/or they are perpetrators themselves. Both suggestions are found offensive by many, whether they are personally accused or not.[24]

False memories, confabulations and screen memories can be implanted/confabulated, as for example, in past life regression and alien abductions.

Recovered Memory TherapyEdit

Main article: Recovered Memory Therapy

The term "recovered memory therapy" was coined ca. 1992-1993 by the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, a group that advocates on behalf of those who claim they've been falsely accused of committing child sexual abuse, and who argued that such therapy might implant "false memories" by means of scientifically questionable therapies.[25]

Though controversial and widely-publicized due in part to several notable court cases,[26] "recovered memory therapy" per se was never recognized or practiced by the mainstream medical or mental health community, does not describe a unified treatment modality, and is not listed in the DSM-IV.[27]

Body MemoryEdit

Main article: Body memory

"Body memory" is a non-clinical term used to describe several distinct, but related concepts related to memory, amnesia, and trauma. Broadly, body memory argues that memories can be stored not only in the brain, but also throughout the body; or that one's physical symptoms and responses can indicate the presence of repressed or otherwise forgotten memory.

Body memory per se has been criticized as pseudoscience.[28] However, trauma researcher Bessel van der Kolk of Harvard University notes that post-traumatic stress disorder often display physiological responses they cannot explain: "trauma interferes with declarative memory, i.e. conscious recall of experience, but does not inhibit implicit memory, or non-declarative memory, the memory system that controls conditioned emotional responses, skills and habits, and sensorimotor sensations related to experience.[29]

Freud on Repressed Memory Edit

Freud abandoned his theory of repressed memory not "during his later years in life" and not due to social pressure, as some feminist schools of thought claim today. Some sources do not even mention Freud's decision of abandonment at all (for example Bass and Davis 1988,[30] Herman 1992[31]). Freud encountered facts in his psychoanalytical practice that contradicted his initial theory of repressed memories of traumatic sexual experiences during early childhood (mostly referred to as Freud's Seduction theory).[32] These were

  • a.) that he increasingly came upon evidences in individual cases logically outruling any possibility the 'recovered' events could have occurred,
  • b.) that, to a degree, he found himself able to direct his more suggestible patients into any recollection of memory he wanted to (especially while they were undergoing hypnosis), even more so in an entirely boundless manner when he turned to sexual matters, and
  • c.) linked aspects (to repressed memories timewise, spatially, and/or causally) that in contrary had not been repressed or that had always been manifest to the conscious mind of his patients in a transformed appearance (see defence mechanism) were not perceived by his patients as alarming or frightening on themselves. If negative trauma was the cause for the repression Freud observed, they should hence be perceived as negative. In fact these linked aspects frequently were connoted with positive emotions, partly even very intensely so, that the patients themselves could not explain.

Freud deduced from a.) and b.) that the unconscious mind actually knows no distinction between memories and imagination and therefore easily becomes subject to manipulation of memories and imagination, and by combining this analysis with c.), he concluded that it is personal desires and fantasies that are getting repressed instead as demanded according to social taboo.

This theory of repressed impulse in fact was the fundament of Freud's psychology, and it was essentially much more provocative and controversial than his initial theory of repressed memory had been already. First advancements after abandoning his initial theory of repressed memory can be seen in his Oedipus complex concept developed 1897-1905 (by his 1905 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, it had completely replaced his initial theory), however it would take until the years 1920-1923 that Freud would introduce Id, Super-ego, and Ego.

One might say that by the recent disillusionment concerning sensationalist Recovered Memory Therapy during the past few years, mainstream scientific research is currently undergoing the acknowledgement of Freud's stages of a.) and b.). Whether scientists and even the public will aknowledge c.) and accept Freud's conclusions is a matter that only time can tell.

Famous trials involving repressed/recovered memories Edit

  • George Franklin, charge: murder, accuser: Eileen, daughter crime: 1969, convicted 1995 time in jail: 6 years, duration of memory suppression: 20 years
  • accuser: Nicole Taus, charge: abuse, duration of suppression: 11 years
  • In some of the cases of Catholic priests accused of fondling or sexually assaulting juvenile-turned-adult parishioners [33][34]; also in the case of Joseph Cardinal Bernardin.


See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. Scheflin, A (1999-11-01). Ground lost: The false memory/recovered memory therapy debate. Psychiatric Times 16 (11).
  2. Fink, P (2005). Press Release by the Leadership Council: Recovered Memories: True or False?. The Leadership Council. URL accessed on 2008-02-06.
  3. Dallam, Stephanie J. (2001). Crisis or Creation: A Systematic Examination of 'False Memory Syndrome'. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse Vol 9; No. 3/4, pp. 9-36.
  4. Widom, Cathy Spatz, Shepard, Robin L. (December 1996). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization : Part 1. Childhood physical abuse. Psychological Assessment 8 (4): 412–21. EJ542113.
  5. Widom, Cathy Spatz, Morris, Suzanne (March 1997). Accuracy of Adult Recollections of Childhood Victimization: Part 2. Childhood Sexual Abuse. Psychological Assessment 9 (1): 34–46. EJ545434.
  6. Sheflin, Alan W, Brown, Daniel (1996). Repressed Memory or Dissociative Amnesia: What the Science Says. Journal of Psychiatry & Law 24 (Summer): 143–88.
  7. Julia M. Whealin, Ph.D. and Laurie Slone, Ph.D.. Complex PTSD. National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. United States Department of Veteran Affairs.
  8. Herman, Judith Lewis (1997). Trauma and recovery: The aftermath of violence from domestic abuse to political terror, 119–122, Basic Books.
  9. McNally, R.J. (2004). The Science and Folklore of Traumatic Amnesia. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 11 (1): 29–33.
  10. McNally RJ (2007). Dispelling confusion about traumatic dissociative amnesia. Mayo Clin. Proc. 82 (9): 1083–90.
  11. McNally RJ (2004). Is traumatic amnesia nothing but psychiatric folklore?. Cogn Behav Ther 33 (2): 97–101; discussion 102–4, 109–11.
  12. McNally RJ (2005). Debunking myths about trauma and memory. Can J Psychiatry 50 (13): 817–22.
  13. Amicus Curiae brief in Template:Cite court
  14. Geraerts, E., Schooler, J.W.; Merckelbach, H.; Jelicic, M.; Hauer, B.J.A.; Ambadar, Z. (2007). The Reality of Recovered Memories: Corroborating Continuous and Discontinuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Psychological Science 18 (7): 564–568.
  15. http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9808/19/stress.memory/
  16. http://medschool.wustl.edu/~wumpa/news/newcomer.html
  17. http://www.mtsu.edu/~sschmidt/Cognitive/forgetting/forgetting.html
  18. http://www.jimhopper.com/memory/
  19. Loftus, E.F., Polonsky, S., & Fullilove, M. T. (1994). Memories of childhood sexual abuse: Remembering and repressing. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 67-845.
  20. http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Taubman_Center/Recovmem
  21. Andrews, B., Brewin, C., Ochera, J., Morton, J., Bekerian, D., Davies, G., and Mollon, P. (1999). "Characteristics, context and consequences of memory recovery among adults in therapy." British Journal of Psychiatry 175, pp. 141-146.
  22. Geraerts, Elke; Schooler, Jonathan W.;, Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko; Hauer, Beatrijs J.A.;, Ambadar, Zara. "The Reality of Recovered Memories: Corroborating Continuous and Discontinuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse." Psychological Science, Vol. 18, No. 7. (July 2007), pp. 564-568.
  23. http://www.fmsfonline.org/
  24. http://www.stopbadtherapy.com/retracts/macdonald.shtml
  25. Whitfield, CL; Silberg JL; Fink PJ (2001). Misinformation Concerning Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Survivors, Haworth Press.; page 56.
  26. Belluck, P. "Memory Therapy Leads to a Lawsuit and Big Settlement [$10.6 Million]", The New York Times, Page 1, Column 1, Nov. 6, 1997. "The next thing I think there will be is legislation to require informed consent from psychiatric patients for such so-called 'treatments'," said Dr. R. Christopher Barden, a psychologist and lawyer [for the plaintiff], "This (case) is the death knell for recovered memory therapy."
  27. Whitfield, Charles L.; Joyanna L. Silberg, Paul Jay Fink (2001). Misinformation Concerning Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Survivors, 56, Haworth Press.
  28. Smith (1993). Body Memories: And Other Pseudo-Scientific Notions of "Survivor Psychology". Issues in Child Abuse Accusations 5 (4).
  29. van der Kolk, Bessel A. "The Body Keeps The Score: Memory & the Evolving Psychobiology of Post Traumatic Stress." Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 1994, 1(5), pp. 253-265"
  30. Bass, E.; L. Davis (1988). The courage to heal, 347.
  31. Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and recovery, 13.
  32. Freud, Sigmund (1952). Zur Geschichte der analytischen Bewegung, from: Gesammelte Werke in Einzelbänden (Volume 10) (in German), 55ff.
  33. Martin Gardner (January 2006). The Memory Wars, Part 1. Skeptical Inquirer Magazine 30(1).
  34. Martin Gardner (March 2006). The Memory Wars, Parts 2 and 3. Skeptical Inquirer Magazine 30(2).

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External linksEdit


Memory
Types of memory
Articulatory suppression‎ | Auditory memory | Autobiographical memory | Collective memory | Early memories | Echoic Memory | Eidetic memory | Episodic memory | Episodic-like memory  | Explicit memory  |Exosomatic memory | False memory |Flashbulb memory | Iconic memory | Implicit memory | Institutional memory | Long term memory | Music-related memory | Procedural memory | Prospective memory | Repressed memory | Retrospective memory | Semantic memory | Sensory memory | Short term memory | Spatial memory | State-dependent memory | Tonal memory | Transactive memory | Transsaccadic memory | Verbal memory  | Visual memory  | Visuospatial memory  | Working memory  |
Aspects of memory
Childhood amnesia | Cryptomnesia |Cued recall | Eye-witness testimony | Memory and emotion | Forgetting |Forgetting curve | Free recall | Levels-of-processing effect | Memory consolidation |Memory decay | Memory distrust syndrome |Memory inhibition | Memory and smell | Memory for the future | Memory loss | Memory optimization | Memory trace | Mnemonic | Memory biases  | Modality effect | Tip of the tongue | Lethologica | Memory loss |Priming | Primacy effect | Reconstruction | Proactive interference | Prompting | Recency effect | Recall (learning) | Recognition (learning) | Reminiscence | Retention | Retroactive interference | Serial position effect | Serial recall | Source amnesia |
Memory theory
Atkinson-Shiffrin | Baddeley | CLARION | Decay theory | Dual-coding theory | Interference theory |Memory consolidation | Memory encoding | Memory-prediction framework | Forgetting | Recall | Recognition |
Mnemonics
Method of loci | Mnemonic room system | Mnemonic dominic system | Mnemonic learning | Mnemonic link system |Mnemonic major system | Mnemonic peg system | [[]] |[[]] |
Neuroanatomy of memory
Amygdala | Hippocampus | prefrontal cortex  | Neurobiology of working memory | Neurophysiology of memory | Rhinal cortex | Synapses |[[]] |
Neurochemistry of memory
Glutamatergic system  | of short term memory | [[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |[[]] |
Developmental aspects of memory
Prenatal memory | |Childhood memory | Memory and aging | [[]] | [[]] |
Memory in clinical settings
Alcohol amnestic disorder | Amnesia | Dissociative fugue | False memory syndrome | False memory | Hyperthymesia | Memory and aging | Memory disorders | Memory distrust syndrome  Repressed memory  Traumatic memory |
Retention measures
Benton | CAMPROMPT | Implicit memory testing | Indirect tests of memory | MAS | Memory tests for children | MERMER | Rey-15 | Rivermead | TOMM | Wechsler | WMT | WRAML2 |
Treating memory problems
CBT | EMDR | Psychotherapy | Recovered memory therapy |Reminiscence therapy | Memory clinic | Memory training | Rewind technique |
Prominant workers in memory|-
Baddeley | Broadbent |Ebbinghaus  | Kandel |McGaugh | Schacter  | Treisman | Tulving  |
Philosophy and historical views of memory
Aristotle | [[]] |[[]] |[[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |
Miscellaneous
Journals | Learning, Memory, and Cognition |Journal of Memory and Language |Memory |Memory and Cognition | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |



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