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biology, a reading frame is a contiguous and non-overlapping set of three- nucleotide codons in DNA or RNA. There are 3 possible reading frames in a mRNA strand and six in a double stranded DNA molecule due to the two strands from which transcription is possible. This leads to the possibility of overlapping genes and there may be many of these in bacteria.
In rare cases a translating
ribosome may shift from one frame to another, a translational frameshift. It is distinct from a frameshift mutation as the nucleotide sequence (DNA or RNA) is not altered only the frame in which it is read.
open reading frame (ORF) is a reading frame that contains a start codon and the subsequent translated region, but no stop codon.
Johnson Z, Chisholm S (2004). Properties of overlapping genes are conserved across microbial genomes.. Genome Res 14 (11): 2268-72. PMID 15520290.
Protein biosynthesis: translation ( prokaryotic, eukaryotic)
PIF-1 · PIF-2 · PIF-3
· aIF2 · aIF5 · aIF6
eIF1 ( EIF1AX, AY, 1B)
eIF2 ( EIF2S1, EIF2S2, EIF2S3) · EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, EIF2B5 · EIF-2 kinase
eIF3 ( EIF3A, B, C, D, F, G, H, I, J, K, M, S6)
eIF4 ( EIF4A2, A3, B, E1, E2, G1, G2, G3, H)
eIF5 ( EIF5A, A2, B)
EF-Tu, EF-Ts, EF-G
EEF-1 ( EEF1A1, EEF1A2, EEF1A3, EEF1B1, EEF1B2, EEF1B3, EEF1B4, EEF1D, EEF1E1, EEF1G) · EEF2
Prokaryotic · Archaeal · Eukaryotic (ETF1)
RPS1 · RPS2 · RPS3 · RPS4 · RPS5 · RPS6 · RPS7 · RPS8 · RPS9 · RPS10 · RPS11 · RPS12 · RPS13 · RPS14 · RPS15 · RPS16 · RPS17 · RPS18 · RPS19 · RPS20 · RPS21 · RPS22 · RPS23 · RPS24 · RPS25 · RPS26 · RPS27 · RPS28 · RPS29
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase · Reading frame · Start codon · Stop codon · Shine-Dalgarno sequence/ Kozak consensus sequence
see also disorders of translation and posttranslational modification Template:Protein biosynthesis navs