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{{ClinPsy}}
 
{{ClinPsy}}
The '''Rancho Los Amigos Scale''' (also called the '''Rancho Los Amigos Cognitive Scale''' or '''Rancho Scale''') is a medical scale intended to assess the level of recovery of [[brain injury]] patients and those recovering from [[coma]]. It is named after the Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center.
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The '''Rancho Los Amigos Scale''' (a.k.a. the '''Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale''' (LOCF) or '''Rancho Scale''') is a medical scale used to assess individuals after a [[closed head injury]], including [[traumatic brain injury]], based on cognitive and behavioural presentations as they emerge from [[coma]].<ref>Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center. (1 March 2011). ''The Rancho Levels of Cognitive Functioning''. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://www.rancho.org/Research_RanchoLevels.aspx</ref> It is named after the [[Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center]], located in Downey, California, United States.
   
==References==
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After being assessed based on the '''LOCF''', individuals with brain injury will receive a score from one to eight. A score of one represents non-responsive cognitive functioning, whereas a score of eight represents purposeful and appropriate functioning.<ref name="fulk">Fulk, G. D. (2007). Traumatic Brain Injury. In S. B. O’Sullivan & T. J. Schmitz (Eds.), ''Physical Rehabilitation'' (5th ed., pp. 895-935). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.</ref>
* [http://www.abihelp.org/NABIS_Information_Line-Rancho_Los_Amigos_Scale.htm NABIS info on the Rancho Scale]
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Each of the eight levels represents the typical sequential progression of recovery from brain damage. However, individuals will progress at different rates and may plateau at any stage of recovery. These patients will be scored based on combinations of the following criteria:<ref name="fulk"/>
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* responsiveness to stimuli
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* ability to follow commands
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* presence of non-purposeful behavior
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* [[cooperation]]
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* [[confusion]]
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* [[attention]] to environment
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* focus
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* coherence of verbalization
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* appropriateness of verbalizations and actions
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* [[memory recall]]
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* [[Orientation (mental)|orientation]]
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* [[judgement]] and [[reasoning]]
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'''LOCF''' scores are used by the health care professionals for standardized communication about patient status and can be used by [[Physical medicine and rehabilitation|physiatrists]], [[physical therapists]], [[occupational therapists]], and [[Speech language pathology|speech language pathologists]] as the basis for treatment planning.<ref name="fulk"/>
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This eight-level scale was found to possess test-retest and interrater reliability as well as concurrent and predictive validity.<ref>Gouvier, W. D., Blanton, P. D., LaPorte, K. K., & Nepomuceno, C. (1987). Reliability and validity of the Disability Rating Scale and the Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale in monitoring recovery from severe head injury. ''Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation'', 68(2), 94-97.</ref> It is widely used clinically and is often paired with the [[Glasgow Coma Scale]] in health care facilities.<ref name="fulk"/>
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
* [[Glasgow Coma Scale]], a means of assessing the condition of coma patients
 
* [[Glasgow Coma Scale]], a means of assessing the condition of coma patients
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* [[Neuropsychological screening measures]]
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* [[Traumatic brain injury]]
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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==External links==
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* [http://www.abihelp.org/NABIS_Information_Line-Rancho_Los_Amigos_Scale.htm NABIS info on the Rancho Scale]
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* [http://www.braininjury.com/recovery.html Brain Injury.com's updated description of the Rancho scale]
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Please see http://www.rancho.org/Research_RanchoLevels.aspx for a complete description of the scale.
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[[Category:Neurology]]
 
[[Category:Neurology]]

Latest revision as of 13:21, August 7, 2013

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The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (a.k.a. the Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LOCF) or Rancho Scale) is a medical scale used to assess individuals after a closed head injury, including traumatic brain injury, based on cognitive and behavioural presentations as they emerge from coma.[1] It is named after the Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center, located in Downey, California, United States.

After being assessed based on the LOCF, individuals with brain injury will receive a score from one to eight. A score of one represents non-responsive cognitive functioning, whereas a score of eight represents purposeful and appropriate functioning.[2]

Each of the eight levels represents the typical sequential progression of recovery from brain damage. However, individuals will progress at different rates and may plateau at any stage of recovery. These patients will be scored based on combinations of the following criteria:[2]

LOCF scores are used by the health care professionals for standardized communication about patient status and can be used by physiatrists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and speech language pathologists as the basis for treatment planning.[2]

This eight-level scale was found to possess test-retest and interrater reliability as well as concurrent and predictive validity.[3] It is widely used clinically and is often paired with the Glasgow Coma Scale in health care facilities.[2]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center. (1 March 2011). The Rancho Levels of Cognitive Functioning. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://www.rancho.org/Research_RanchoLevels.aspx
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Fulk, G. D. (2007). Traumatic Brain Injury. In S. B. O’Sullivan & T. J. Schmitz (Eds.), Physical Rehabilitation (5th ed., pp. 895-935). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.
  3. Gouvier, W. D., Blanton, P. D., LaPorte, K. K., & Nepomuceno, C. (1987). Reliability and validity of the Disability Rating Scale and the Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale in monitoring recovery from severe head injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 68(2), 94-97.

External linksEdit

Please see http://www.rancho.org/Research_RanchoLevels.aspx for a complete description of the scale.

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