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Radical consonant

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Places of articulation
Labial
Bilabial
Labial-velar
Labial-alveolar
Labiodental
Bidental
Coronal
Linguolabial
Interdental
Dental
Alveolar
Apical
Laminal
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Retroflex
Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Uvular-epiglottal
Radical
Pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal

Radical consonants are those consonants articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. This includes the pharyngeal, epiglottal, and epiglotto-pharyngeal places of articulation, though technically epiglottal consonants take place in the larynx.

The term radical was coined to help disambiguate pharyngeal, which had come to mean any consonant articulated in the throat, whether the articulator was the back of the tongue ("high" pharyngeals) or the epiglottis ("low" pharyngeals). However, the term pharyngeal is still commonly used in the broader sense, and authors such as Miller (2005) prefer guttural, which may include glottal consonants as well.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Ladefoged, Peter (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
  • Miller, Amanda (2005), "Guttural vowels and guttural co-articulation in Ju|’hoansi". Journal of Phonetics, vol. 35, Issue 1, January 2007, pp 56-84.
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